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The Human/Primate History Thread

humans primates cro magnon neanderthals proto-human evolution hunter-gatherer human evolution australopithecus primate evolution

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#1
Yuli Ban

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Here's a general history thread that discusses ancient human and primate history.
 

Humans definitely killed off mammoths, giant armadillo, sabretooth tiger, scientists claim

New research settles argument about whether whether humans or climate change was responsible for the end of ‘megafauna’, it is claimed, and ‘debunks the myth of early humans living in harmony with nature’
 


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#2
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Earliest evidence of controlled fire making in Europe found

Charred bone, heat-rippled stone in Spanish cave date back 800,000 yrs. Cave has 2,300 heated or charred bones. Fossils of extinct animals also found with the tools. Some argue the the tools are some 600,000 yrs old

Prehumans living around 800,000 years ago in what’s now southeastern Spain were, literally, trailblazers. They lit small, controlled blazes in a cave, a new study finds.
Discoveries in the cave provide the oldest evidence of fire making in Europe and support proposals that members of the human genus, Homo, regularly ignited fires starting at least 1 million years ago, say paleontologist Michael Walker of the University of Murcia in Spain and his colleagues. Fire making started in Africa (SN: 5/5/12, p. 18) and then moved north to the Middle East (SN: 5/1/04, p. 276) and Europe, the researchers conclude in the June Antiquity.
If the age estimate for the Spain find holds up, the new report adds to a “surprising number” of sites from deep in the Stone Age that retain evidence of small, intentionally lit fires, says archaeologist John Gowlett of the University of Liverpool in England.
Excavations conducted since 2011 at the Spanish cave, Cueva Negra del Estrecho del Río Quípar, have uncovered more than 165 stones and stone artifacts that had been heated, as well as about 2,300 animal-bone fragments displaying signs of heating and charring. Microscopic and chemical analyses indicate that these finds had been heated to between 400° and 600° Celsius, consistent with having been burned in a fire.
Walker’s group doubts that sparks from a brush fire near the cave’s entrance could have triggered fires five to seven meters inside the cave. Dry brush probably didn’t grow near the cave anyway, the researchers add. Geologic evidence suggests that around 800,000 years ago, the cave bordered a river and a swamp.

 
"Prehumans"? Please. These were humans, full stop. Almost certainly Homo erectus.


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#3
Yuli Ban

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TIL that when early humans transitioned from hunter gathering to agriculture, it actually lowered their standards of living

MGOhjsE.gif

I predict something similar when we developed AGI. The first models will actually seem to be regressive compared to what computers could typically achieve; artificially intelligent computers won't be easily able to whatever other computers of the day can do. And then there's rapid improvement afterwards.

 

Now that I think about it, this seems to be the rule. 

 

aYj7orS.png

 

Think of the switch from feudalism to industrialism. The working class in 1600 was arguably better off than they were in 1800, but tremendously worse off than they were in 2000.

It might be that way when we move to technostism. People will feel better in post-industrialism than they will in the earliest days of technostism due to a variety of factors. Some of them are cultural— there will be people who think that anyone who doesn't work for their daily bread, regardless of the ability of machines, should not eat. There will be people who won't know how to live when they no longer have to work and thus may take to self-destructive activities. The early days of technostism may not even benefit everyone, especially since we won't know how to make it work as efficiently as it could work right off the bat. Give it a few years, and then we'll wonder how we ever lived before the days of artificially intelligent automation just like how we currently wonder how the hell we ever lived before industrial society, and how feudal peoples wondered how the hell we ever lived before civilization and agriculture.


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#4
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#5
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^ Wrong thread


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#6
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Chimpanzees and monkeys have entered the stone age

In the rainforests of west Africa, the woodlands of Brazil and the beaches of Thailand, archaeologists have unearthed some truly remarkable stone tools.
It's not the workmanship that makes them special. If anything, a casual observer might struggle to even identify them as ancient tools. It's not their antiquity that's exceptional either: they're only about the same age as the Egyptian pyramids.
What makes these tools noteworthy is that the hands that held them weren't human.
These stone tools were wielded by chimpanzees, capuchins and macaques. The sites where they have been unearthed are the basis of a brand new field of science: primate archaeology.
The tools are crude. A chimpanzee or monkey stone hammer is hardly a work of art to rival the beauty of an ancient human hand axe. But that's not the point. These primates have developed a culture that makes routine use of a stone-based technology. That means they have entered the Stone Age.

p02zycpm.jpg
A chimpanzee uses a stone hammer (Credit: Justine Evans/NPL)


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#7
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Humans have evolved a disproportionately large brain as a result of sizing each other up in large cooperative social groups, researchers have proposed

Humans have evolved a disproportionately large brain as a result of sizing each other up in large cooperative social groups, researchers have proposed.
A team led by computer scientists at Cardiff University suggest that the challenge of judging a person’s relative standing and deciding whether or not to cooperate with them has promoted the rapid expansion of human brain size over the last 2 million years.
 
In a study published in Scientific Reports, the team, which also includes leading evolutionary psychologist Professor Robin Dunbar from the University of Oxford, specifically found that evolution favours those who prefer to help out others who are at least as successful as themselves.
Lead author of the study Professor Roger Whitaker, from Cardiff University’s School of Computer Science and Informatics, said: “Our results suggest that the evolution of cooperation, which is key to a prosperous society, is intrinsically linked to the idea of social comparison – constantly sizing each up and making decisions as to whether we want to help them or not.
“We’ve shown that over time, evolution favours strategies to help those who are at least as successful as themselves.”


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#8
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Human remains found in hobbit cave
Ancient teeth make Homo sapiens the lead suspect in the extinction of Homo floresiensis. Teeth are slightly younger than known hobbit remains, which strengthens case humans were responsible for the species’ demise

A pair of 46,000-year-old human teeth has been discovered in Liang Bua, a cave on the Indonesian island of Flores that was once home to the 1-metre-tall ‘hobbit’ species Homo floresiensis. The teeth are slightly younger than the known hobbit remains, which strengthens the case that humans were responsible for the species’ demise.
A team led by archaeologist Thomas Sutikna and geochronologist Richard Roberts, both at the University of Wollongong, Australia, reported the discovery of the teeth in a talk on 17 September at the annual meeting of the European Society for the study of Human Evolution in Madrid.
The 2003 discovery of H. floresiensis puzzled researchers, in part because some of the remains were carbon dated to 11,000 years ago1–3. By then, Homo sapiens had colonized southeast Asia, and few scientists could imagine them having co-existed with hobbits for thousands of years.
But this year, re-dating work in the cave pushed the extinction of hobbits back to around 50,000 years ago4. Roberts, who led that study, noted that humans were known to be already living in southeast Asia around that time. “It’s a smoking gun for modern human interaction, but we haven’t yet found the bullet,” he told Nature when the paper was published in March 2016.


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#9
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Aboriginal Australians, Pacific Islanders carry DNA of unknown human species, research analysis suggests

People from Papua New Guinea and north-east Australia carry small amounts of DNA of an unidentified, extinct human species, a new research analysis has suggested

The analysis suggests the DNA is unlikely to come from Neanderthals or Denisovans, but from a third extinct hominid, previously unknown to archaeologists.
 
Statistical geneticist Ryan Bohlender and his team investigated the percentages of extinct hominid DNA in modern humans.
 
They found discrepancies in previous analyses and found that interbreeding between Neanderthals and Denisovans was not the whole story to our ancestors' genetic makeup.
 
Mr Bohlender presented his analysis to the American Society of Human Genetics in Canada, saying that scientists were either "missing a population" or "misunderstanding something about the relationships"
Mr Bohlender and his colleague used a computer model to figure out the amount of Neanderthal and Denisovan DNA carried by modern humans.
 
They found Europeans and Chinese people carry about 2.8 per cent of Neanderthal DNA.
 
But Europeans have no Denisovan ancestry, and Chinese people only have 0.1 per cent.
 
Modern populations from South Pacific regions including Vanuatu, the Solomon Islands, Fiji, Papua New Guinea, New Caledonia, West Papua, and the Maluku Islands have 2.74 per cent of their DNA as coming from Neanderthals.
 
Mr Bohlender estimates the amount of Denisovan DNA in these people is as low as about 1.11 per cent, not the 3 to 6 per cent estimated by other researchers.
 
Therefore, Mr Bohlender and his colleagues came to the conclusion that a third group of hominids may have bred with the ancestors of Melanesians.


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#10
Maximus

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Thousands of horsemen may have swept into Bronze Age Europe, transforming the local population

 

 

Call it an ancient thousand man march. Early Bronze Age men from the vast grasslands of the Eurasian steppe swept into Europe on horseback about 5000 years ago—and may have left most women behind. This mostly male migration may have persisted for several generations, sending men into the arms of European women who interbred with them, and leaving a lasting impact on the genomes of living Europeans.

 
“It looks like males migrating in war, with horses and wagons,” says lead author and population geneticist Mattias Jakobsson of Uppsala University in Sweden.
 
Europeans are the descendants of at least three major migrations of prehistoric people. First, a group of hunter-gatherers arrived in Europe about 37,000 years ago. Then, farmers began migrating from Anatolia (a region including present-day Turkey) into Europe 9000 years ago, but they initially didn’t intermingle much with the local hunter-gatherers because they brought their own families with them. Finally, 5000 to 4800 years ago, nomadic herders known as the Yamnaya swept into Europe. They were an early Bronze Age culture that came from the grasslands, or steppes, of modern-day Russia and Ukraine, bringing with them metallurgy and animal herding skills and, possibly, Proto-Indo-European, the mysterious ancestral tongue from which all of today’s 400 Indo-European languages spring. They immediately interbred with local Europeans, who were descendants of both the farmers and hunter-gatherers. Within a few hundred years, the Yamnaya contributed to at least half of central Europeans’ genetic ancestry.

Not sure if this belongs here, but I didn't feel like it deserved its own thread.

 

http://www.sciencema...ocal-population


If the world should blow itself up, the last audible voice would be that of an expert saying it can't be done. -Peter Ustinov
 

#11
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'Hobbit' species did not evolve from ancestor of modern humans, research find

Bone study shows there is no evidence the 1.1-metre tall Homo floresiensis had any links with the much larger Homo erectus

Researchers who studied the bones of Homo floresiensis, a species of tiny human discovered on the Indonesian island of Flores in 2003, say their findings should end a popular theory that it evolved from an ancestor of modern humans.

The study, led by the Australian National University researcher Dr Debbie Argue from the school of archaeology and anthropology, found there was no evidence the diminutive 1.1-metre-tall Homo floresiensis evolved from the much larger Homo erectus, the only other early hominid known to have lived in the region.


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#12
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'Hobbit' species did not evolve from ancestor of modern humans, research find

Bone study shows there is no evidence the 1.1-metre tall Homo floresiensis had any links with the much larger Homo erectus

Researchers who studied the bones of Homo floresiensis, a species of tiny human discovered on the Indonesian island of Flores in 2003, say their findings should end a popular theory that it evolved from an ancestor of modern humans.

The study, led by the Australian National University researcher Dr Debbie Argue from the school of archaeology and anthropology, found there was no evidence the diminutive 1.1-metre-tall Homo floresiensis evolved from the much larger Homo erectus, the only other early hominid known to have lived in the region.

 

 

The story of the "Hobbits" has gotten even more interesting ;)

 



#13
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Ancient Stone Tablet Found: Reveals Comet Impact Sparking The Rise Of Civilization


No, Forbes, it didn't. For God's sake! 

mediandude

The popular article is inaccurate in many regards.
The 10950 BC is also the approximate date of the Laacher See supervolcanic eruption. And likely the date for other cataclysmic events as well.
Secondly, most hunter gatherers were actually sedentary, not nomadic.
Third, neolithic slowly started in south-east asia already about 20 000 years ago.
Fourth, grain was cultivated not for food, but for beer. Although, the practice of tarahumara indians show that alcoholic beverages are a good diet for ultrarunners. And yet the tarahumara indians are sedentary.


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#14
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Homo Naledi Species Discovery Raises Fresh Questions About Evolution

 

 

Scientists unveiled the first evidence on Tuesday that early humans co-existed in Africa 300,000 years ago with a small-brained human-like species thought to already be extinct on the continent at that time.

 
The findings, published in three papers in the journal eLife, raise fresh questions about human evolution, including the prospect that behaviours previously attributed to humans may have been developed by hominin precursors of Homo sapiens.
 
Hominins are an extinct group of the same genus as humans, the only surviving members of that category today. Man's nearest living relatives, chimpanzees and gorillas, are further removed from Homo sapiens biologically than hominins are.
 
The species in question is Homo naledi, named in 2015 after a rich cache of its fossils was unearthed near Sterkfontein and Swartkrans in South Africa.

 

http://www.cbc.ca/ne...overy-1.4104860



#15
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Earliest evidence of controlled fire making in Europe found

Charred bone, heat-rippled stone in Spanish cave date back 800,000 yrs. Cave has 2,300 heated or charred bones. Fossils of extinct animals also found with the tools. Some argue the the tools are some 600,000 yrs old

Prehumans living around 800,000 years ago in what’s now southeastern Spain were, literally, trailblazers. They lit small, controlled blazes in a cave, a new study finds.
Discoveries in the cave provide the oldest evidence of fire making in Europe and support proposals that members of the human genus, Homo, regularly ignited fires starting at least 1 million years ago, say paleontologist Michael Walker of the University of Murcia in Spain and his colleagues. Fire making started in Africa (SN: 5/5/12, p. 18) and then moved north to the Middle East (SN: 5/1/04, p. 276) and Europe, the researchers conclude in the June Antiquity.
If the age estimate for the Spain find holds up, the new report adds to a “surprising number” of sites from deep in the Stone Age that retain evidence of small, intentionally lit fires, says archaeologist John Gowlett of the University of Liverpool in England.
Excavations conducted since 2011 at the Spanish cave, Cueva Negra del Estrecho del Río Quípar, have uncovered more than 165 stones and stone artifacts that had been heated, as well as about 2,300 animal-bone fragments displaying signs of heating and charring. Microscopic and chemical analyses indicate that these finds had been heated to between 400° and 600° Celsius, consistent with having been burned in a fire.
Walker’s group doubts that sparks from a brush fire near the cave’s entrance could have triggered fires five to seven meters inside the cave. Dry brush probably didn’t grow near the cave anyway, the researchers add. Geologic evidence suggests that around 800,000 years ago, the cave bordered a river and a swamp.

 
"Prehumans"? Please. These were humans, full stop. Almost certainly Homo erectus.

 

 

Indeed, "human" is a genus, rather than a species.  



#16
CuriousOne

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What do you think of the theory now being made public that the Rh Negative blood factor may have originated with alien genetic manipulation of humans?

 

http://thehealthcoach1.com/?p=5365      

 

Excerpt:  " Nearly 85% of all human beings have RH positive blood. Which merely indicates that their red blood cells contain a substance called the RHesus (rhesus) blood factor. Simply put, their positive blood contains a protein that can be linked to the Rhesus monkey. It is acknowledged that blood factors are transmitted with more exactitude than any other human or animal characteristic. It is not generally known from where the negative RH factor derived, although tantalizing evidence exists that it arrises from genetic experimentation a little over 5,000 years ago."

 

----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

 

https://www.ancient-...s-of-years-ago/

 

Excerpt:  "“There are 612 primate species and subspecies recognized by the international Union for Conversation of Nature (IUCN), and not one has Rh negative blood”.



#17
Yuli Ban

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I think the problem with coming to this conclusion is simply the fact that we are all alone in our genus, and we are even all along in our general bipedal method of locomotion among primates. It's possible that there's something in the Homo genus that simply doesn't appear in any extant primate species, but would have appeared loud and clear in the Australopithecines. Likewise, there are sometimes species-specific oddities whereas other traits are more species-general. 

 

Sort of like how odd it is that we have slightly webbed fingers and toes when no other primate has that.. I know plenty of Ancient Astronaut types think this is proof that we are a product of alien genetic engineering, but the problem is that this assumes you go straight from chimpanzees and gorillas straight to anatomically and behaviorally modern humans when, in reality, it didn't happen anything like that. 

 

It's one of the bigger tragedies of history, that our ancestors and brethren could not survive to the present alongside us. If Australopithecines, Paranthropus, and archaic Human species still lived, I'm sure several of these theories wouldn't be.


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#18
CuriousOne

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"Sort of like how odd it is that we have slightly webbed fingers and toes when no other primate has that.. I know plenty of Ancient Astronaut types think this is proof that we are a product of alien genetic engineering, but the problem is that this assumes you go straight from chimpanzees and gorillas straight to anatomically and behaviorally modern humans when, in reality, it didn't happen anything like that. "  (Yuli Ban)

 

Not necessarily.  Just for the moment, consider the possibility that some alien visitors did a bit of tinkering with one particular group of HUMANS, say for example those who were later called the Sumerians.  Why do you assume the aliens would have tinkered with chimps and gorillas, rather than actual humans?  Be that as it may, it would appear I have popped on the wrong Forum....new to this "Forum" thing....will have to go through some trial and error and find an appropriate Forum. Y'all have a good day!



#19
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40,000-year-old bracelet made by extinct human species found

In what is quite an amazing discovery, scientists have confirmed that a bracelet found in Siberia is 40,000 years old. This makes it the oldest piece of jewelry ever discovered, and archeologists have been taken aback by the level of its sophistication.
The bracelet was discovered in a site called the Denisova Cave in Siberia, close to Russia's border with China and Mongolia. It was found next to the bones of extinct animals, such as the wooly mammoth, and other artifacts dating back 125,000 years.
The cave is named after the Denisovan people — a mysterious species of hominins from the Homo genus, who are genetically different from both Homo sapiens and Neanderthals.


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#20
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40,000-year-old bracelet made by extinct human species found

In what is quite an amazing discovery, scientists have confirmed that a bracelet found in Siberia is 40,000 years old. This makes it the oldest piece of jewelry ever discovered, and archeologists have been taken aback by the level of its sophistication.
The bracelet was discovered in a site called the Denisova Cave in Siberia, close to Russia's border with China and Mongolia. It was found next to the bones of extinct animals, such as the wooly mammoth, and other artifacts dating back 125,000 years.
The cave is named after the Denisovan people — a mysterious species of hominins from the Homo genus, who are genetically different from both Homo sapiens and Neanderthals.

 

 

And more new groups are likely to be forthcoming..... https://www.scientif...nisovan-genome/

 

Excerpt:  ""Denisova is a big surprise," says John Hawks, a biological anthropologist at the University of Wisconsin–Madison who was not involved in the new research. On its own, a simple finger bone in a cave would have been assumed to belong to a human, Neandertal or other hominin. But when researchers first sequenced a small section of DNA in 2010—a section that covered about 1.9 percent of the genome—they were able to tell that the specimen was neither. "It was the first time a new group of distinct humans was discovered" via genetic analysis rather than by anatomical description, said Svante Pääbo, a researcher at the Max Planck Institute (M.P.I.) for Evolutionary Anthropology in Germany, in a conference call with reporters.

The Denisovans might be the first non-Neandertal archaic human to be sequenced, but they are likely not going to be the last. The researchers behind this new study are already at work using the new single-strand sequencing technique to reexamine older specimens. (Meyer said they were working on reassessing old samples but would not specify which specimens they were studying—the mysterious "hobbit" H. floresiensiswould be a worthy candidate.) Pääbo suggests Asia as a particularly promising location to look for other Denisovan-like groups. "I would be surprised if there were not other groups to be found there in the future," he said."







Also tagged with one or more of these keywords: humans, primates, cro magnon, neanderthals, proto-human, evolution, hunter-gatherer, human evolution, australopithecus, primate evolution

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