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Nanotechnology & Material Science News and Discussions

nanotechnology nano microtechnology micro material science metamaterials graphene atomic engineering molecular manufacturing nanobots

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#601
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The Sci-Fi Technology that Could Power Microbots

Using no moving parts, ion thrusters could propel tiny robots for long periods

Engines powered by ions are currently carrying satellites outsides of our solar system, but here on Earth, this futuristic propulsion could power miniature robots.
 
Daniel Drew, an engineering student at the University of California, Berkeley, found himself inspired to study miniature robots from the science fiction he devoured as a child.
Miniature robots inspired by insects could someday be used to search confined spaces for survivors after a disaster, monitor air quality and even fill in as pollinators for real-life insects that have been wiped out of an area.
"Imagine a world where we could tap into the sensory input of every single insect on Earth," Drew said. "That's the kind of high-resolution data we can get."


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#602
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A nanobot picks up a sperm by the tail and inseminates an egg with it.

 

Credit: Institute for Integrative Nanosciences, Germany.


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#603
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#604
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Tiny robots crawl through mouse's stomach to release antibiotics

For the first time, micromotors – autonomous vehicles the width of a human hair – have cured bacterial infections in the stomachs of mice, using bubbles to power the transport of antibiotics

Tiny robotic drug deliveries could soon be treating diseases inside your body. For the first time, micromotors – autonomous vehicles the width of a human hair – have cured bacterial infections in the stomachs of mice, using bubbles to power the transport of antibiotics.
“The movement itself improves the retention of antibiotics on the stomach lining where the bacteria are concentrated,” says Joseph Wang at the University of California San Diego, who led the research with Liangfang Zhang.


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#605
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Spiders exposed to water with graphene make triple strength spider silk

 

A research team, led by Professor Nicola Pugno at the University of Trento, Italy, succeeded in having their spiders produce silk with up to three times the strength and ten times the toughness of the regular material.

This could pave the way for a new class of bionicomposites, with a wide variety of uses.

 
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#606
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Confirmed: Electrons flowing like liquid in graphene are extremely superconductive

Superballistic flow within graphene at the relatively warm temperature of 150 K (-123°C and -190°F) with resistance actually decreasing as temperature increased

Electrons have been caught flowing through graphene like a liquid, reaching limits physicists thought were fundamentally impossible.
This type of conductance is known as 'superballistic' flow, and this new experiment suggests it could revolutionise the way we conduct electricity.
If that's not crazy enough, the super-fast flows actually occur as a result of electrons bouncing off each other, something that high school physics tells us should slow conductivity down.
So what's going on here? For decades, scientists had speculated that, under some circumstances, electrons might stop behaving as individuals and collide so often that they actually begin to flow like a viscous fluid with all kinds of unique properties.
But it was only last year that researchers confirmed the phenomenon, showing for the first time that, even at room temperature, electrons within graphene could act as a fluid 100 times more viscous than honey - something the researchers referred to as "quantum weirdness arising from [electrons'] collective motion".
Now the same team, led by Sir Andre Geim - the University of Manchester physicist who won the 2010 Nobel Prize for his work characterising graphene - has shown that this liquid electron phenomenon is even crazier than we thought.
By unlocking this fluid-like behaviour, the researchers were able to observe electrons in graphene smashing a fundamental limit for electrons in a normal metal, known as Landauer's ballistic limit.


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#607
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Graphene is the world’s first 2D material. Graphene is a two-dimensional honeycomb arrangement of carbon atoms that is revolutionizing technology. The word “graphene” refers to a single-layer sheet of hexagonally-arranged carbon atoms.
 
It was first studied in Manchester in 1947. The term graphene first appeared in 1987 to describe single sheets of graphite as a constituent of graphite intercalation compounds (GICs), conceptually a GIC is a crystalline salt of the intercalant and graphene.The first samples of graphene were made using sticky tape.The word “graphene” is sometimes used interchangeably with the term “carbon nanotubes” or CNTs.
 
Graphene properties:
 
It is one million times thinner than paper.
It is one million times smaller than the diameter of a single human hair.
It is 200 times stronger than steel, but it is incredibly flexible.
It has no band gap. It helps to produce transistors.
It is better than silver at conducting.
It is 100 times lighter than aluminum.
It is more conductive than copper.
 
Graphene Applications:
 
Solar cells:
 
Solar cells rely on semiconductors to absorb sunlight. Semiconductors are made of an element like silicon and have two layers of electrons. Using graphene would also allow cells that are hundreds of thousands of times thinner and lighter than those that rely on silicon.
 
Water Filtration:
 
Graphene could be used to distillate saltwater to make it drinkable. Graphene could also be immensely helpful in purifying water of toxins.Passing sea water through Graphene’s tiny pores, the crystal lattice could let water molecules through, while blocking out the atoms that make salt.
 
Electronics:
 
Graphene can be used as a coating to improve current touch screens for phones and tablets.This makes it perfect for use in portable electronics. Graphene has a high carrier mobility, and low noise, allowing it to be used as the channel in a field-effect transistor.
 
 
 
A team of researchers at MIT has designed one of the strongest lightweight materials known, by compressing and fusing flakes of graphene, a two-dimensional form of carbon. This 3-D forms of Graphene material, a sponge-like configuration with a density of just 5 percent, can have a strength 10 times that of steel.
 
 
 
 
Scientists in China are developing a new kind of graphene coated solar panel that could be used to generate power from rain drops.By using a thin layer of highly conductive graphene, the solar cell could effectively harness power from rain. The salt contained in rain separates into ions (ammonium, calcium and sodium), making graphene and natural water a great combination for creating energy.
 
 
Creating light in small structures on the surface of a chip is crucial for developing fully integrated “photonic” circuits. But researchers were not able to put the light bulb into a chip, as the light bulb filaments must be extremely hot in order to glow, and micro-scale metal wires cannot withstand such temperatures.
 
Researchers have developed World’s Thinnest Light Bulb using Graphenethat works in the same way as the filament in a light bulb. By measuring the spectrum of the light emitted from the graphene, the team was able to show that the graphene was reaching temperatures of above 2500 degrees Celsius, hot enough to glow brightly.
 
Know more about graphene at http://www.rtoz.org/...about-graphene/


#608
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Twisted carbon nanotubes harness waste energy and put it to work

Using yarn less than the weight of a mosquito, the team was able to generate enough power to run an LED – just from the ambient activity of ocean waves and body movements

It sounds like a simple task: use ambient energy from your surroundings to do something handy, such as charge your iPod from the vibrations of your morning run. But few of the many energy-harvesting devices introduced over the past hundred years have  lived up to the promise of the idea. They just don’t seem able to eke out enough power to do anything useful. That looks set to change.
An energy-harvesting device that uses carbon nanotubes is already hitting power levels higher than any others have ever shown. The nanotubes are spun into a yarn around a twentieth of a millimetre thick, then twisted into coils thinner than the width of a human hair. These coils are then submerged in an electrolyte to complete the device, dubbed a twistron harvester.


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#609
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Breakthrough steel is far stronger, lower cost and process is applicable to Titanium
brian wang | August 25, 2017 |
 

Automotive, aerospace and defence applications require metallic materials with ultra-high strength. However, in some particular high-loading structural applications, metallic materials shall also have large ductility and high toughness to facilitate the precise forming of structural components and to avoid the catastrophic failure of components during service. Unfortunately, increasing strength often leads to the decrease in ductility, which is known as the strength-ductility trade-off. For example, ceramics and amorphous materials have negligible ductility, although they have great hardness and ultra-high strength. To simultaneously increase both strength and ductility of metallic materials using conventional industrial processing routes is both of great scientific and technological importance and is yet quite challenging in both the materials science community and industry sectors.

 

https://www.nextbigf...-potential.html


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#610
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Nanomaterials have already been found functional below theoretical limits imposed by Thermodynamics

After high energy powder processing for a few hours, the crystallite size of the alpha alumina powder is reduced below 10 nm, which is below the thermodynamic size limit; suggesting that the newly produced powder should not exist, and therefore an important novel material. The TEM image confirms the small crystallite size of the powders.


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#611
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Scientists Make It Rain Diamonds In The Lab

The first time and only time I’ve been to the United States was when I carried out a summer placement at the SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory. To get there, I had to have an interview at the U.S. embassy, where when asked what I was going to do in the U.S. I said that I’d be making diamonds. My interviewer laughed at me. But it was true, that was the experiment I was going to help out with. And now, a research collaboration of scientists from all over the world have, for the first time, created ‘diamond rain’ in the laboratory to mimic the conditions of the interiors of icy giant planets. Dominik Kraus, scientist at Helmholtz Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf, described this work as one of the best moments of my scientific career.


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#612
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Army completes autonomous micro-robotics research program

Researchers from industry and universities across the nation have rallied around a collaborative technology alliance with the U.S. Army Research Laboratory since 2008.

A research program called Micro Autonomous Systems and Technology, or MAST, came to its conclusion during a capstone event of presentations and demonstrations from Aug. 22 - 24 of both ground and air micro-robots.

Teams of researchers gave 17 live demonstrations of the technologies they've been working on over the past several years. The University of Pennsylvania showcased a group of autonomous quadcopters that self-organize into formations.

Officials said technology has advanced dramatically during the life of the program.

"I think there's still a long way to go to get them to do all of the behaviors we want in any type of environment," said Dr. Brett Piekarski, the Army's collaborative alliance manager. "There are certain areas where I think we've really pushed the bar and moved the state-of-the-art. One example is in scaling things down to be able to do autonomous behavior in something that fits in the size of your hand."


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#613
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Icy molecules hold 25,000 gigabytes in a space the size of a quarter

A team from the University of Manchester has made a major breakthrough in the field of molecular data storage proving that high volumes of data can effectively be stored in individual molecules. This research could lead to new, high-density data storage systems that potentially can hold more than 25 terabytes of data per square inch. That's around 25,000 gigabytes on something as small as a quarter.
Magnetism is the underlying force that most modern hard disk drives use to store data. Magnetic grains, typically 10 to 20 nanometers in size, are used to encode a single bit of data. These tiny magnetic grains are flipped to either north or south to represent a 1 or a 0. The memory effect, where a material retains its alignment after a greater magnetic field is removed, is called magnetic hysteresis.


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#614
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Recipe for Safer Batteries — Just Add Diamonds

Nanodiamonds — tiny diamond particles 10,000 times smaller than the diameter of a hair — curtail the electrochemical deposition, called plating, that can lead to hazardous short-circuiting of lithium ion batteries

While lithium-ion batteries, widely used in mobile devices from cell phones to laptops, have one of the longest lifespans of commercial batteries today, they also have been behind a number of recent meltdowns and fires due to short-circuiting in mobile devices. In hopes of preventing more of these hazardous malfunctions researchers at Drexel University have developed a recipe that can turn electrolyte solution — a key component of most batteries — into a safeguard against the chemical process that leads to battery-related disasters. 
Yury Gogotsi, PhD, Distinguished University and Bach professor in the College of Engineering, and his research team from the Department of Materials Science and Engineering, recently published their work — entitled “Nanodiamonds Suppress Growth of Lithium Dendrites” — in the journal Nature Communications. In it, they describe a process by which nanodiamonds — tiny diamond particles 10,000 times smaller than the diameter of a hair — curtail the electrochemical deposition, called plating, that can lead to hazardous short-circuiting of lithium ion batteries.


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#615
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Nanomachines that drill into cancer cells killing them in just 60 seconds developed by scientists

In one test conducted at Durham University the nanomachines took between one and three minutes to break through the outer membrane of prostate cancer cell, killing it instantly

Nanomachines which can drill into cancer cells, killing them in just 60 seconds, have been developed by scientists.
The tiny spinning molecules are driven by light, and spin so quickly that they can burrow their way through cell linings when activated.
In one test conducted at Durham University the nanomachines took between one and three minutes to break through the outer membrane of prostate cancer cell, killing it instantly.  
A graphic showing the tiny nanomachine Credit: Tour Group/Rice University
The 'motor' is a rotor-like chain of atoms that can be prompted to move in one direction, causing the molecule to rotate at high speed.
Dr Robert Pal of Durham University said: "We are moving towards realising our ambition to be able to use light-activated nanomachines to target cancer cells such as those in breast tumours and skin melanomas, including those that are resistant to existing chemotherapy.


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#616
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Scientists have spiders producing enhanced web that can hold a human

Scientists have succeeded in combining spider silk with graphene and carbon nanotubes, a composite material five times stronger that can hold a human, which is produced by the spider itself after it drinks water containing the nanotubes

Parachutes could one day soon be made out of spider webs, according to researchers in Italy and the UK.
 
The silk spun by spiders combines great strength with lightness and flexibility, as any flying insect will testify, but scaling those qualities up to where webs can hold humans has until recently seemed fanciful.

Now, however, scientists led by Nicola Pugno at Italy's University of Trento have succeeded in combining spider silk with grapheme and carbon nanotubes, producing a composite material five times stronger.
 
Remarkably, the composite is produced by the spider itself, after first drinking water containing the nanotubes.
 
The ingenious construction method takes advantage of metabolic processes already active in the arachnids.


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#617
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A one-dimensional fluidic nanogenerator to draw electricity from the bloodstream

People build dams and huge turbines to turn the energy of waterfalls and tides into electricity. To produce hydropower on a much smaller scale, Chinese scientists have now developed a lightweight power generator based on carbon nanotube fibers suitable to convert even the energy of blood flowing through vessels into electricity. They describe their innovation in the journal Angewandte Chemie.


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#618
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Walking DNA nanorobot could deliver a drug to a precise location in your body

 

September 15, 2017

 

Future uses could include creating programmable drugs or delivering them when a specific signal is received in the bloodstream or cells

 

http://www.kurzweila...on-in-your-body

 

 

Two-DNA-robots-working.png



#619
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Engineers 3-D print high-strength aluminum, solve ages-old welding problem using nanoparticles
September 20, 2017

 

HRL Laboratories has made a breakthrough in metallurgy with the announcement that researchers at the famous facility have developed a technique for successfully 3D printing high-strength aluminum alloys—including types Al7075 and Al6061—that opens the door to additive manufacturing of engineering-relevant alloys. These alloys are very desirable for aircraft and automobile parts and have been among thousands that were not amenable to additive manufacturing—3D printing—a difficulty that has been solved by the HRL researchers. An added benefit is that their method can be applied to additional alloy families such as high-strength steels and nickel-based superalloys difficult to process currently in additive manufacturing.

 

 

Read more at: https://phys.org/new...elding.html#jCp


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#620
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Scientists computationally design new metastable, ultra-light crystalline form of aluminum
brian wang | September 22, 2017 |

 

If you restructure aluminum at the molecular level, as Boldyrev and colleagues did using computational modeling, you could produce an ultra-light crystalline form of aluminum that’s lighter than water. Boldyrev, along with scientists Iliya Getmanskii, Vitaliy Koval, Rusian Minyaev and Vladimir Minkin of Southern Federal University in Rostov-on Don, Russia.

Above there is an image from Chemists from Utah State University, USA and Southern Federal University, Russia, showing computationally designed a new, metastable, ultra-light crystalline form of aluminum. Credit: Iliya Getmanskii, Southern Federal University, Russia

“My colleagues’ approach to this challenge was very innovative,” says Boldyrev, professor in USU’s Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry. “They started with a known crystal lattice, in this case, a diamond, and substituted every carbon atom with an aluminum tetrahedron.”

The team’s calculations confirmed such a structure is a new, metastable, lightweight form of crystal aluminum. And to their amazement, it has a density of only 0.61 gram per cubic centimeter, in contrast to convention aluminum’s density of 2.7 grams per cubic centimeter.

“That means the new crystallized form will float on water, which has a density of one gram per cubic centimeter,” Boldyrev says.

Such a property opens a whole new realm of possible applications for the non-magnetic, corrosive-resistant, abundant, relatively inexpensive and easy-to-produce metal

https://www.nextbigf...f-aluminum.html


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Also tagged with one or more of these keywords: nanotechnology, nano, microtechnology, micro, material science, metamaterials, graphene, atomic engineering, molecular manufacturing, nanobots

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