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The Russian Revolution

1917 1905 Russia Soviet Union CCCP USSR February October Bolsheviks Vladimir Lenin

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#21
PhoenixRu

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Maybe Yuli, Phoenix, and I should buy stock in the Russian Telegraph.

 

I already did. Here is my investment portfolio:

 

[you have seen, now the picture removed]


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"And the Russian land, let God keep it! Under heavens, there is no other land like this. And although Russian nobles are not righteous neither kind, let God arrange the Russian land and give us enough justice" - Afanasy Nikitin, medieval traveler of XV century.


#22
caltrek

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Here is another portfolio in which you may be interested in investing.   I would suggest being friendly with the natives.

 

 

http://www.bing.com/...A75&FORM=IQFRBA


The principles of justice define an appropriate path between dogmatism and intolerance on the one side, and a reductionism which regards religion and morality as mere preferences on the other.   - John Rawls


#23
caltrek

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...or perhaps this would be more to your liking.  Watch out for the love bites with this model.

 

 

http://www.bing.com/...hotos&FORM=IGRE


The principles of justice define an appropriate path between dogmatism and intolerance on the one side, and a reductionism which regards religion and morality as mere preferences on the other.   - John Rawls


#24
Yuli Ban

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[June 16th, 1917] First All-Russian Congress of Workers' and Soldiers' Deputies opens in Petrograd. Closed on 24 June. Elects Central Executive Committee of Soviets (VTsIK), headed by Mensheviks and SRs.
 
[June 23rd, 1917] Petrograd: Soviet Congress votes to abolish the Duma.
 
[June 23rd, 1917] Planned Bolshevik demonstration in Petrograd banned by the Soviet.
 
[June 28th, 1917] More Bolshevik manoeuvring incurs the ire of our man in Petrograd (Daily Telegraph).
 
[July 6th, 1917] Russia: The Kronstadt Anarchists demand the liberation of Petrograd anarchists, lest they liberate them by force.
 
[July 7th, 1917] Russia: Izvestia reports plans by the Provisional Government to close a series of factories in Petrograd, potentially leaving thousands jobless. Meanwhile, the Oranienbaum garrisons inform the government that they support Kronstadt.
 
[July 7th, 1917] Russia: The Bolshevik-led soviet in Petrograd’s industrial Vyborg district adopts a resolution opposing the war policy, and condemning the Mensheviks and SRs. 
 
[July 8, 1917] In Gotham 10,000 cheer as the "blood red flag" of the Russian revolution was hoisted for a mass meeting by the Friends of the Russian Freedom at Madison Square Garden


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Nobody gonna beat my drone, it's gonna shoot into the sky!

#25
Yuli Ban

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[July 9th, 1917] Russia: The Grenadier Guard Regiment returns from the front and joins with anarchists at the Kronstadt naval base.

 

[July 11th, 1917] Russia: Trotsky steps up efforts to merge the Mezhraiontsy (Inter-District Organisation) with the Bolshevik party.

 

[July 15th, 1917] Russia: The Kadets (Constitutional Democrats, the main capitalist party) withdraw from the Provisional Government adding to the political instability.

 

[July 15th, 1917] Russian offensive ends. Trotsky joins Bolsheviks.

 

[July 16th- 18th, 1917] Demonstrations in Petrograd, endorsed on 4 July (17 July in the new-style calendar) by Bolshevik Central Committee; suppressed by 5 July (18 July) with the aid of troops. Measures taken against Bolsheviks: Lenin, Zinoviev, and others go into hiding.

 

[July 16th- 17th, 1917] The "July Days"; mass armed demonstrations in Petrograd, encouraged by the Bolsheviks, demanding "All Power to the Soviets". 

 

[July 16th, 1917] Lenin is forced to flee.

 

CWWJ20N.jpg


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Nobody gonna beat my drone, it's gonna shoot into the sky!

#26
Yuli Ban

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[July 17th, 1917] Workers, soldiers, and sailors take to the streets in Petrograd demanding a new revolution and the overthrow of the provisional government. Lenin, feeling the time is not right, refuses to become involved. The uprising will be put down tomorrow.
 
July 17th, 1917] Petrograd (Saint Petersburg), July 4, (July 17th) 1917. Street demonstration on Nevsky Prospekt just after troops of the Provisional Government have opened fire with machine guns.
 
[July 18th, 1917] The government orders the arrest of Bolshevik leaders and other activists. Agents of the Russian provisional government raid the offices of "Pravda" and Bolshevik party headquarters. The only Bolsheviks captured are Anatoly Vasilyevich Lunacharsky and Lev Davidovich Trotsky.
 
[July 20th, 1917] (July 7, O.S.) – Alexander Kerensky becomes premier of the Russian Provisional Government, replacing Prince Georgy Lvov.
 
[July 20th, 1917] The Russian Provisional Government enacts women's suffrage.
 
[July 20th, 1917] Russia: The Provisional Government orders the arrest of Lenin, claiming he is a German spy, and that the Bolsheviks incited the uprising. The Provisional Government further orders the disbandment of the Petrograd garrison. Vladimir Lenin and Grigory Zinoviev go into hiding.


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Nobody gonna beat my drone, it's gonna shoot into the sky!

#27
Yuli Ban

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[July 21st, 1917] Alexander Kerensky, formerly minister for war, heads a new provisional government in Russia, replacing the government of Prince Lvov.

 

[July 22nd, 1917] Petrograd: Alexander Kerensky is appointed prime minister.

 

[July 22nd, 1917] Kerensky to head new reforming regime.

 

[July 24th, 1917] Lenin goes into hiding. 

 

[July 25th, 1917] Russia: Newspapers are shut down, freedom of assembly curtailed. The death penalty is reinstated for mutinous troops or deserters.

 

[July 30th, 1917] The Parliament of Finland is dissolved by the Russian Provisional Government. New elections are held in the autumn, resulting in a bourgeois majority.

 

[August 1st, 1917] Russia: Kerensky appoints General Kornilov Commander-in-Chief.

Bad move, Kerensky!

 

[August 4th, 1917] Russia: Trotsky and Lunacharskii arrested. 

 

[August 6th, 1917] Russia: Kerensky, now prime minister and war minister, forms a new coalition. This is ratified by the Petrograd Soviet executive by 147 votes to 46 with 42 abstentions – showing increased opposition to the Mensheviks and SRs.

 

[August 8th- 16th, 1917] Russia: The 6th congress of the Bolshevik party takes place. It agrees to fuse with the Mezhraiontsy.

 

[August 11th, 1917] Female Russian soldiers, 11 August 1917. Although originally recruited to fight alongside male troops in the Tsar's army, many brigades of women soldiers fought for the Bolshevik Revolution.

 

[August 11th, 1917] Vladimir Lenin, now a wanted man in Russia, is photographed hiding in Finland

 

[August 13th, 1917] Petrograd: Kerensky sends a message to King George V pledging continued Russian role in the war.


Nobody's gonna take my drone, I'm gonna fly miles far too high!
Nobody gonna beat my drone, it's gonna shoot into the sky!

#28
Yuli Ban

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[August 15th, 1917] Petrograd: The ex-Czar and his family are removed from Petrograd, possibly to Siberia.

 

[August 16th, 1917] Stalin is elected to the Central Committee of the Bolsheviks.

 

[August 18th, 1917] The paper's man in Petrograd quite understands why it is necessary to send the ex-Tsar to Siberia (Daily Telegraph).

 

[August 19th, 1917] Lenin writes an article against pro-war socialists ('defencists') and claims the Bolsheviks' task is now "to take power and to proclaim ourselves the government in the name of peace, land for the peasants, and the convocation of the Constituent Assembly"

 

[August 19, 1917] Basile Kroupensky, the Russian ambassador in Japan who expressed gratitude for U.S. support during World War I, The Sunday Oregonian, August 19, 1917

 

[August 21st, 1917] Russia: German troops capture Riga, a major Russian port on the Baltic Sea.

 

[August 25th- 27th, 1917] Russia: Provisional Government convenes State Conference in Moscow.

 

[August 27th, 1917] Russia: At the conference, Kornilov declares his intention to rid Petrograd of revolutionaries.

Told you so, Kerensky.

 

[September 1st, 1917] Kornilov demands that Kerensky allow him to reassign his army to Petrograd. Kerensky refuses. The German army breaks through Russian lines, a fact used in the propaganda drive around Kornilov’s preparation for a coup.

 

[September 4th, 1917] Petrograd: Several grand dukes are arrested for allegedly plotting counter-revolution.

 

[September 4th, 1917] Russia: Kerensky, thinking he has reached agreement for dictatorship, now asks Kornilov to send a Cavalry corps to Petrograd in order to introduce martial law. Kornilov pauses.

 

[September 5th, 1917] Riga: The Russian Twelfth Army succeeds in escaping annihilation, retreating to Wenden. Riga falls to General von Hutier's Eighth Army, which has suffered only forty-two hundred casualties in the offensive. Russian losses are twenty-five thousand.


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#29
Yuli Ban

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[September 7th, 1917] General Kornilov starts to move troops on Petrograd.

 

[September 8th, 1917] Russia: Second coalition government ends.

 

[September 8th- 12th, 1917] "Kornilov mutiny". Begins when the commander-in-chief of the Russian army, General Lavr Kornilov, demands (or is believed by Kerensky to demand) that the government give him all civil and military authority and moves troops against Petrograd. 

 

[September 9, 1917] The Sunday Oregonian: Boris Alexandrovich Bakhmeteff, Russian Provisional Government ambassador to the United States.

 

[September 10th, 1917] Petrograd: Kerensky dismisses army chief Kornilov, who says he will march on Petrograd and overthrow regime.

 

[September 10th, 1917] Russia: Kornilov's movement collapses.

 

[September 12th, 1917] Russia: The Soviet announces that Kornilov has been defeated, his army completely demoralized.

 

[September 13th, 1917] Russia: The Petrograd Soviet votes for the transfer of power to the working class by an overwhelming majority. The Mensheviks and SRs demand a second vote, pressuring delegates to overturn the decision. It is ratified again: by 279 votes to 115 with 51 abstentions.

 

[September 13th, 1917] Russia: Majority of deputies of the Petrograd Soviet approve a Bolshevik resolution for an all-socialist government excluding the bourgeoisie.

 

[September 14th, 1917] Russia: Kerensky organizes Directory as temporary substitute for cabinet.

 

[September 14th, 1917] Russia is declared a republic by the Provisional Government.

 

[September 15th, 1917] A joint session of all Soviets in Finland (a territory of Russia) vote on a Soviet Government: 700 to 13. The Bolshevik party position on the right of nationalities to secede from Russia is well known, and in less than 2 months Finland would gain its independence.

 

[September 16th, 1917] France – "The La Courtine ‘Massacre’": Loyal Russian troops (3rd Brigade) with 75mm mle 1897 battery storm La Courtine internment camp to suppress mutinous Bolshevik 1st Brigade (Globa), 200 miles south of Paris.

Not necessarily in Russia, but still directly related to the Revolution.

 

[September 17th, 1917] Trotsky and other Bolshevik leaders are released from prison after massive public pressure. Kerensky attempts to disband the Military Revolutionary Committee; it refuses.

 

[September 18th, 1917] The Moscow Soviet announces its support for a Soviet Government (355 - 254 votes). At a Congress of Soviets of Siberia, held in Krasnoyarsk, the Soviet renews its pledge of support for the Bolshevik party.


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#30
Yuli Ban

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[September 19th, 1917] Russia: Moscow Soviet for first time shows Bolshevik majority on a vote.

 

[September 22nd, 1917] The Mensheviks and SRs desperately try to reassert their influence in the Soviets, and convoke a new session, with over 1,000 deputies, to try to undo the September 1 decision. The Soviet again votes, now 519 - 414 votes (67 abstentions), in favor of a Soviet Government. 

 

[September 23rd, 1917] Leon Trotsky is elected Chairman of the Petrograd Soviet.

 

[September 25th, 1917] Lenin illegally publishes Lessons of Revolution, recounting events since the February Revolution. Lenin also finishes his most important theoretical work: The State and Revolution.

 

[September 25th, 1917] Lenin illegally publishes Lessons of Revolution, recounting events since the February Revolution. Lenin also finishes his most important theoretical work: The State and Revolution.

 

[September 30th, 1917] Czar and his family are sent to Siberia.

 

qHaEVTw.jpg

[October 2nd, 1917] Moscow Soviet elects executive committee and new presidium, with Bolshevik majorities, and the Bolshevik Viktor Nogin as chairman.

 

[October 6th, 1917] Russia: Petrograd Soviet elects Trotsky chairman.

 

[October 6th, 1917] Russia: The Bolshevik Central Committee approves a list of candidates for the Constituent Assembly, which includes Lenin and Stalin.

 

[October 6th, 1917] Russia: Lenin again writes in favour of the boycott, arguing that the Bolsheviks must prioritise building support in the soviets, trade unions, the army and among the masses.

 

[October 7th, 1917] Russia: Kerensky forms the third coalition government, including ten Menshevik and SR ministers. Rail workers strike over pay. 

 

[October 8th, 1917] Russia: The third (and last) meeting of the Coalition government occurs, amidst staunch protests from the elected Soviets. Trotsky is elected as Chairman of the Petrograd Soviet.

 

[October 8th, 1917] Russia: Third coalition government formed. Bolshevik majority in Petrograd Soviet elects Bolshevik Presidium and Trotsky as chairman.

 

[October 18th, 1917] Russia: With Trotsky, Stalin, and other Bolshevik leaders present, the party votes again on their earlier decision to join the Pre-Parliament. This time around, only 1 vote (Kamenev) supports joining the government. 

 

[October 19th, 1917] Russia: The Petrograd Soldiers' Soviet declares that it no longer reports to the Provisional Government.

 

[October 20th, 1917] Russia: Pre-Parliament meets.

 

[October 20th, 1917] Home Fronts: According to official Soviet biographies, Lenin returns to Petrograd from his hiding place in Finland. Some other sources put his arrival on the previous day. President Wilson declares Sunday, October 28, as a national day of prayer for an Allied victory.

 

[October 23rd, 1917] October Revolution – The Bolshevik Party voted in favor of overthrowing the Russian Provisional Government, with a resolution citing "an armed uprising is inevitable, and that the time for it is fully ripe."

 

[October 24th, 1917] Russia: Congress of Soviets of the Northern Region, until 13 October. (26th).

 

[October 25th, 1917] October Revolution – The Petrograd Military Revolutionary Committee was established with Leon Trotsky as leader to overthrow the Russian Provisional Government.

 

[October 27th, 1917] Russia: Lenin responds to the challenge from the Mensheviks and SRs on "Can the Bolsheviks Retain State Power?"

 

[October 29th, 1917] The Russian daily newspaper "Sankt-Peterburgskie Vedomosti" ("Saint Petersburg News"), the country's first newspaper ever to be published, was suddenly shut down. It would not be revived until 1991 when the daily former Soviet newspaper "Leningradskaya Pravda" adopted the name.

 

[October 30th- November 4th, 1917] An all-Russia conference of Factory and Shop Committees meets in Petrograd and calls for all power to the soviets.

 

[November 1st, 1917] The New York Times reports that "the radical agitator Nikolai Lenine" has postponed his planned demonstration

 

[November 2nd, 1917] Russia: Provincial soviets at Ivanovo-Voznesensk declare that they are “in a state of open and ruthless struggle with the Provisional Government”, with only one vote against.

 

[November 2nd, 1917] Russia: First meeting of the Military Revolutionary Committee of the Petrograd Soviet.

 

[November 2nd, 1917] Russia: The recently appointed Minister of War Verkhovsky makes an impromptu appearance before the Pre-Parliament, and demands that Russia immediately make peace or face complete catastrophe. He is completely ridiculed, and sent on a leave of absence. 

 

[November 3rd, 1917] Alexander Kerensky admits that Russia is worn out in an interview (Daily Telegraph)

 

[November 4th, 1917] Russia: Hundreds of thousands of people answer the MRC’s call to attend mass meetings and peaceful protests in Petrograd. It is a huge show of strength for soviet power. Bolshevik papers list 56 mass organisations supporting the demand.

 

[November 5th, 1917] (N.S.) (October 23, O.S.) – Estonian and Russian Bolsheviks seize power in Tallinn, Autonomous Governorate of Estonia, two days before the October Revolution in Petrograd.


Nobody's gonna take my drone, I'm gonna fly miles far too high!
Nobody gonna beat my drone, it's gonna shoot into the sky!

#31
PhoenixRu

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100th ANNIVERSARY OF THE GREAT OCTOBER SOCIALIST REVOLUTION


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"And the Russian land, let God keep it! Under heavens, there is no other land like this. And although Russian nobles are not righteous neither kind, let God arrange the Russian land and give us enough justice" - Afanasy Nikitin, medieval traveler of XV century.


#32
Yuli Ban

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☭HERE WE GO☭
☭HERE WE GO☭
☭HERE WE FUCKING GO☭
[November 6, 1917] Lenin declares the Communists to be in revolt against the Russian Provisional Government.
 
[November 6th, 1917] Russia: Trotsky and the MRC coordinate the taking of Petrograd’s main bridges, roads and buildings by Red Guards and workers. The former minister-president, Alexander Kerensky, scuttles out of Petrograd with an official US car escort displaying the Stars and Stripes.
 
[November 6th, 1917] Russia: Bolsheviks complete preparations for insurrection. Provisional Government mobilizes, closes down Bolshevik Press. Lenin arrives at Smolny Institute.
 
[November 6th, 1917] Revolutionaries remove the remaining relics of the Imperial Regime from the facade of official buildings, Petrograd, 6 November 1917.
 
large_000000.jpg?action=d&cat=photograph
 
[November 7th, 1917] The People's Commissariat for Posts and Telegraphs for Russia was established in Petrograd.
 
[November 7th, 1917] The Regional Committee in Protection of Revolution in Ukraine was formed by the Central Council of Ukraine, but was dissolved in two days and authority transferred to the General Secretariat of Ukraine.
 
[November 7th, 1917] Petrograd: Bolsheviks stage bloodless coup/Kerensky ousted in Bolshevik coup.
 
OqpJeGf.jpg
RSEzTaS.jpg
 
[November 7, 1917] October revolution: The Bolsheviks lead an insurrection to overthrow the Provisional Government
 
[November 7th, 1917] Iran (which has provided weapons for Russia) refuses to support the Allied Forces after the October Revolution.


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#33
joe00uk

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On October 25 (November 7), Red Guards and revolutionary troops occupied the railway stations, post office, telegraph office, the Ministries and the State Bank.

 

The Pre-parliament was dissolved.

 

The Smolny, the headquarters of the Petrograd Soviet and of the Bolshevik Central Committee, became the headquarters of the revolution, from which all fighting orders emanated.

 

The Petrograd workers in those days showed what a splendid schooling they had received under the guidance of the Bolshevik Party. The revolutionary units of the army, prepared for the uprising by the work of the Bolsheviks, carried out fighting orders with precision and fought side by side with the Red Guard. The navy did not lag behind the army. Kronstadt was a stronghold of the Bolshevik Party, and had long since refused to recognize the authority of the Provisional Government. The cruiser Aurora trained its guns on the Winter Palace, and on October 25 their thunder ushered in a new era, the era of the Great Socialist Revolution.

 

On October 25 (November 7) the Bolsheviks issued a manifesto "To the Citizens of Russia" announcing that the bourgeois Provisional Government had been deposed and that state power had passed into the hands of the Soviets.

 

The Provisional Government had taken refuge in the Winter Palace under the protection of cadets and shock battalions. On the night of October 25 the revolutionary workers, soldiers and sailors took the Winter Palace by storm and arrested the Provisional Government.

 

The armed uprising in Petrograd had won.

 

The Second All-Russian Congress of Soviets opened in the Smolny at 10:45 p.m. on October 25 (November 7), 1917, when the uprising in Petrograd was already in the full flush of victory and the power in the capital had actually passed into the hands of the Petrograd Soviet.

 

The Bolsheviks secured an overwhelming majority at the congress. The Mensheviks, Bundists and Right Socialist-Revolutionaries, seeing that their day was done, left the congress, announcing that they refused to take any part in its labours. In a statement which was read at the Congress of Soviets they referred to the October Revolution as a "military plot." The congress condemned the Mensheviks and Socialist-Revolutionaries and, far from regretting their departure, welcomed it, for, it declared, thanks to the withdrawal of the traitors the congress had become a real revolutionary congress of workers' and soldiers' deputies. The congress proclaimed that all power had passed to the Soviets:

 

"Backed by the will of the vast majority of the workers, soldiers and peasants, backed by the victorious uprising of the workers and the garrison which had taken place in Petrograd, the Congress takes the power into its own hands"—the proclamation of the Second Congress of Soviets read.


"The Proletarians have nothing to lose but their chains." - Karl Marx
"A revolution is not a dinner party, or writing an essay, or painting a picture, or doing embroidery; it cannot be so refined, so leisurely and gentleso temperate, kind, courteous, restrained and magnanimous. A revolution is an insurrection, an act of violence by which one class overthrows another."  - Mao Zedong


#34
PhoenixRu

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IMHO the true meaning of October Revolution will be clear only the fall of capitalism (i.e. clearly not tomorrow). Distant descendants will remember this event as first, maybe naive and doomed from the very beginning, but still the FIRST conscious effort to build the true human society they're living in.

 

There is the good article about this event:

 

In this year, the 100th anniversary of the Russian revolution, many discussing and trying to understand "what it was?" I'll try to express myself too.

 

In my opinion, the October Revolution wasn't even the political event. Yes, exactly. This was an event of evolutionary scale. In fact, it was the first human attempt to free himself from deeply ingrained animal instincts. Consumption, thrist for power and all that lies behind this. Free himself from the law of the jungle, where the strong eats the weak. It was an attempt to create the completely new human being, who would live for other purposes: invent, discover, create... not for the purpose of own enrichment and gaining an advantage over other people, but simply for the good of those same people who surround him. And which would do the same for him, without any benefit. The "benefit" is the key word here.

 

So far, the whole human history, all the social and political structures, were built precisely on animal instincts. Of course, people tried to hide this truth behind religion, and now also behind beautiful words about "human rights" and "universal values" whose practical implementation depends on where you live and how much money and power you have. They (defenders of old society) even trying to show us some bright impulses, some scientific discoveries supposedly done in the interests of the whole world. Yes, scientists are capable of doing so, but they are no more than servants of other people standing far above them. And remember: if these people's interests will demand the new Stone Age, they'll throw you into this Stone Age without a shadow of doubt.

 

I don't know, perhaps this attempt to evolve was doomed to fail. And yes, the cost was enormous, partly because the remaining Animal Territories always looked with hatred at the new Territory of Man and sought to destroy it. The Territory of Man challenged the very foundations of their fucking barbaric world. They even invented a kind of "European socialism" in order to keep their own population from striving for the same evolution. By the way, after the fall of USSR, this "socialism" is slowly but surely dying. Because lions will always eat antelopes.

 

At a deep level, people always strived for this evolution. Just look at the American (sic!) "Star Trek" movie, which shows exactly such a world of Evolved Man, living and creating not for profit, but to bring joy and benefit to his brethren.

 

And I sincerely believe that nothing is finished yet. In the country where I was born, this new kind of Man is already appeared, and these new people aren't rare. And let animals have won so far - this already means nothing. The evolution is irreversible.


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"And the Russian land, let God keep it! Under heavens, there is no other land like this. And although Russian nobles are not righteous neither kind, let God arrange the Russian land and give us enough justice" - Afanasy Nikitin, medieval traveler of XV century.


#35
joe00uk

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Actually it wasn’t doomed to fail at all, Khrushchev could have been stopped with more vigilant Party discipline and proletarian democracy and all that, he just wasn’t. Even with him, from 1982-84 there was Andropov who was trying to restore these things and if he had lived longer instead of the measly 15 months he had before he died, I sincerely believe the USSR and the Eastern Bloc would still be with us today.

"The Proletarians have nothing to lose but their chains." - Karl Marx
"A revolution is not a dinner party, or writing an essay, or painting a picture, or doing embroidery; it cannot be so refined, so leisurely and gentleso temperate, kind, courteous, restrained and magnanimous. A revolution is an insurrection, an act of violence by which one class overthrows another."  - Mao Zedong


#36
PhoenixRu

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Khrushchev could have been stopped with more vigilant Party discipline and proletarian democracy and all that, he just wasn’t.

 

In USSR, proletarian democracy didn't realy existed since 1920's when soviets ("councils" in English) ceased to be the real tools of direct people's power and became the pure formality. And without real control from below, the ruling party evolved from a kind of military monastic order to closed elitary club of managers. Eventually, those managers decided that socialism and state property by itself becoming an obstacle... no any vigilant discipline could stop this process. In this sense, "animals" once again triumphed over "men".

 

from 1982-84 there was Andropov who was trying to restore these things and if he had lived longer instead of the measly 15 months he had before he died, I sincerely believe the USSR and the Eastern Bloc would still be with us today.

 

By 1984, party's elite long ago became the closed ruling class. What is worse, the spirit of revolution was already dead, late Soviet people imagined socialism as usual consumerist society. And as soon as they realised that capitalism would (as they hoped) allow them to consume more and better toys (cars, jeans, video recorders) plus 200 new different sorts of sausages - socialism was doomed. Here, too, "animals" triumphed over "men". As for survival of USSR and Eastern bloc - why not, with some luck and someone else instead of Gorbachev it was quite possible. But this USSR-2017 would be closer to modern China: transitional semi-capitalist society under red banner and with party filled with "class-conscious businessmen".

 

As for survival and further development of socialism itself, IMHO something important was broken sometime in 1950s-1960s. All that followed later - was just inertia, stagnation, and agony.


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#37
Yuli Ban

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[Nov 7, 1917] The Bolshevik Uprising in Black and White

 

[November 8th, 1917] 3:30 AM - Mensheviks and Socialist-Revolutionaries form an anti-Bolshevik committee intended to "Save the Motherland and the Revolution"

 

[November 8th, 1917] A Bolshevik uprising of 6,000 led by Georgy Pyatakov in Kiev occurred in opposition of the creation of a revolutionary committee by the Central Council of Ukraine as a temporary government.

 

[November 8th, 1917] The Soviet government is inaugurated with Lenin as chair of the Council of People’s Commissars. It issues decrees on ending the war, and on the land. Fighting erupts in Moscow and flares up over eight days as counter-revolutionary forces attack.

 

[November 8th, 1917] The first news of a new revolution in Russia reaches England (Daily Telegraph)


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#38
joe00uk

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That doesn't really make sense, because there was no fundamental change in the structures of proletarian democracy from the 1920s until after the death of Stalin, with the exception of the war perhaps. There were still democratic elections to the Soviets. The Party continued to represent the people, because the Party was ultimately elected by the people or at least their elected representatives at the higher levels. The problem was the struggle between the proletarian section of the Party and the peasant, petit-bourgeois section of the Party - both classes were victors of the October Revolution and so both classes represented themselves in the Party.

 

In 1917 the Soviet working class was still small, so tens of millions of peasants would become part of the growing Soviet working class. For as long as both these classes existed, as I'm sure you can appreciate, political tendencies also continued to exist that reflected their respective class interests. In the 1920s, the construction of socialism was ostensibly in the interests of both classes. However, given that the peasantry did have many petit-bourgeois elements, this ideology survived among those Soviet workers who came from the peasantry. Whereas the working class favoured policies which would strengthen it with rapid industrialisation and collectivisation, strengthening also the role of the Communist Party, the petit-bourgeois peasant tendency favoured a slower graduation towards socialism maintaining aspects of capitalism like private property, competitive markets, and profit incentives. Under Lenin and Stalin, the working class tendency won out, it was able to occupy a position of dominance in the CPSU. After WWII, the petit-bourgeois ideology within the Party experienced a resurgence in response to the demand to focus on raising living standards in the aftermath of the devastation of the war. The petit-bourgeois tendency favoured investing more in light industry at the expense of heavy industry and insisted on peace with the Western powers. After the Marshall Plan and the Truman Doctrine in 1947, it became clear that meaningful "peace" was unrealistic. The working class tendency argued that whilst living standards should of course be raised, this was impossible without continuing to invest predominantly in the heavy industry which would provide the solid base for future expansion of the Soviet economy. By this point, investment in heavy industry was only about 20% higher than investment in light industry anyway. For the remainder of Stalin's tenure, the working class tendency continued its dominance. This changed after his death. 

 

After the death of Stalin, Khrushchev (one of the petit-bourgeois camp) became head of the Party whilst Malenkov (one of the working class camp) became head of the government. The collective leadership agreed to put the repression that occurred under Stalin behind them considering it was no longer as necessary. From 1953-57, intense struggle between the petit-bourgeois and working class camps was waged and eventually by 1957 Khrushchev and the petit-bourgeois camp had consolidated their hold of the Party leadership. Many of Khrushchev's initiatives where reversed and/or aborted after he was deposed in 1964 but this would not be enough. Khrushchev and his camp essentially believed in a "quick and easy" road to communism which was based on catching up with the West in terms of consumer goods - the "consumer communism" idea, "political relaxation", and also an "easing of the contest" with the West. Khrushchev implemented several capitalist features into the Soviet economy like decentralisation, the introduction of some market mechanisms, and some private production. This hampered the efficiency of the socialist Soviet economy which started to grow at slower rates than it had done in the past. Under Khrushchev's "state of the whole people" idea, the floodgate was opened for even more petit-bourgeois penetration into the Party and standards became very lax. The capitalist elements Khrushchev introduced provided the basis for the growth of the Soviet 'second economy' which, despite the reversal of many Khrushchevite initiatives after 1964, continued to grow under Brezhnev, and caused more problems as it did so. Centralisation also became insufficient, and there was a lack of coordination. Productivity was impaired. 

 

When Andropov (from the working class tendency) came to power after Brezhnev's death in 1982, he set about cracking down on laxness and corruption. He had a firm grasp of Marxism-Leninism and aimed to restore the "Leninist norms". Andropov wanted to increase the efficiency of central planning, utilising the most recent scientific and technological innovations. He attacked the USSR's reliance on extensive rather than intensive methods of production and the lack of labour and Party discipline. It was only fifteen months before he died, so he and the working class tendency of the Party (very much diminished by this point however), were unable to complete most of their planned reforms before the completely mediocre Chernenko came to power. He died the next year, so in 1985 Gorbachev came to power, and represented the most petit (or not so petit any more) bourgeois tendencies of the Party which had ballooned with the second economy. By this point, these petit-bourgeois elements had a very large and obvious stake in the restoration of capitalism. The rest, as they say, is history. 

 

In summary, then, I will concede that perhaps although Andropov's policies were correct, they were too late to be effective, maybe. Khrushchev, though, could have been stopped if there had been better political education throughout all levels of Soviet society. The solidly working class faction of the Party did not conduct a campaign among the people educating them of the dangers of Khrushchevism, which were apparent before he took power. If there had been a persistent effort as such, the Soviet people could have recalled these petit-bourgeois Party members (as was their right) and elected new representatives carrying out a firmly proletarian line. They could have had a Chinese-style Cultural Revolution. Tragically, they let it slip before them. They did not utilise proletarian democracy to the full extent that they could have, they grew too complacent, and this is what went wrong, as you say, in the 1950s-60s.


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"A revolution is not a dinner party, or writing an essay, or painting a picture, or doing embroidery; it cannot be so refined, so leisurely and gentleso temperate, kind, courteous, restrained and magnanimous. A revolution is an insurrection, an act of violence by which one class overthrows another."  - Mao Zedong


#39
caltrek

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there was no fundamental change in the structures of proletarian democracy from the 1920s until after the death of Stalin, with the exception of the war perhaps. There were still democratic elections to the Soviets. 

 

 

 

The collective leadership agreed to put the repression that occurred under Stalin behind them considering it was no longer as necessary

 

 

This seems to me to be a contradiction. That there was a proletarian democracy at the same time that there was "repression".  How could such a democracy function democratically in an era of repression?


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joe00uk

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Because the Party was still controlled by the workers and peasants, but it was the decision of this Party (which still represented its electorate) to repress the elements of society that were hostile to the proletarian democracy. This is what is called the Dictatorship of the Proletariat. It sounds contradictory to have a "democratic dictatorship" but in reality this is what that was. It was the democratic rule of the working class and the peasantry, exercising the dictatorship of their class rule over those who would seek to overthrow it.


"The Proletarians have nothing to lose but their chains." - Karl Marx
"A revolution is not a dinner party, or writing an essay, or painting a picture, or doing embroidery; it cannot be so refined, so leisurely and gentleso temperate, kind, courteous, restrained and magnanimous. A revolution is an insurrection, an act of violence by which one class overthrows another."  - Mao Zedong






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