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Exoplanets - worlds of other suns


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#421
Sciencerocks

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Polar orbit for Gliese 436 b
Bourrier et al. "Orbital misalignment of the Neptune-mass exoplanet GJ 436b with the spin of its cool star"
https://arxiv.org/abs/1712.06638

The orbit of GJ 436 b is nearly perpendicular to the stellar equator. This might be the result of Kozai oscillations, in which case some constraints can be put on the perturbing companion "GJ 436 c"

 

This is interesting as most people probably things planets orbit all horizontally on a "plane" to each other looking at any picture of the planets but this blows that idea away.


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#422
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When will we have exoplanet pictures with this level of detail?

1024px-BlueMarble-2001-2002.jpg


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#423
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Or even this level of detail:

PIA21260_hires.jpg


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#424
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Depends...I won't get into a government runt here but I will say that the top one probably will take at least 500 years. Why? Because we will have to build the telescope to great size and that will take industry in space to do.

 

The bottom one in your second post probably will be done by a telescope of half the size of the above one or one on the surface of the earth that is probably 1,000 plus meters in size.

 

The telescope needs to be bigger to take in the "light" to increase resolution.


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#425
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Depends...I won't get into a government runt here but I will say that the top one probably will take at least 500 years. Why? Because we will have to build the telescope to great size and that will take industry in space to do.

 

The bottom one in your second post probably will be done by a telescope of half the size of the above one or one on the surface of the earth that is probably 1,000 plus meters in size.

 

The telescope needs to be bigger to take in the "light" to increase resolution.

What about a telescope at the Sun's gravitational focus point?


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#426
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Early 2017 observations of TRAPPIST-1 with Spitzer
Laetitia Delrez, Michael Gillon, Amaury H.M.J. Triaud, Brice-Olivier Demory, Julien de Wit, James G. Ingalls, Eric Agol, Emeline Bolmont, Artem Burdanov, Adam J. Burgasser, Sean J. Carey, Emmanuel Jehin, Jeremy Leconte, Susan Lederer, Didier Queloz, Franck Selsis, Valerie Van Grootel
(Submitted on 8 Jan 2018)

 

    The recently detected TRAPPIST-1 planetary system, with its seven planets transiting a nearby ultracool dwarf star, offers the first opportunity to perform comparative exoplanetology of temperate Earth-sized worlds. To further advance our understanding of these planets' compositions, energy budgets, and dynamics, we are carrying out an intensive photometric monitoring campaign of their transits with the Spitzer Space Telescope. In this context, we present 60 new transits of the TRAPPIST-1 planets observed with Spitzer/IRAC in February and March 2017. We combine these observations with previously published Spitzer transit photometry and perform a global analysis of the resulting extensive dataset. This analysis refines the transit parameters and provides revised values for the planets' physical parameters, notably their radii, using updated properties for the star. As part of our study, we also measure precise transit timings that will be used in a companion paper to refine the planets' masses and compositions using the transit timing variations method. TRAPPIST-1 shows a very low level of low-frequency variability in the IRAC 4.5-μm band, with a photometric RMS of only 0.11% at a 123-s cadence. We do not detect any evidence of a (quasi-)periodic signal related to stellar rotation. We also analyze the transit light curves individually, to search for possible variations in the transit parameters of each planet due to stellar variability, and find that the Spitzer transits of the planets are mostly immune to the effects of stellar variations. These results are encouraging for forthcoming transmission spectroscopy observations of the TRAPPIST-1 planets with the James Webb Space Telescope.

 

https://arxiv.org/abs/1801.02554


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#427
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http://www.caltech.e...et-system-80989

The K2-138 system: A Near-Resonant Chain of Five Sub-Neptune Planets Discovered by Citizen Scientists

Five (may be six) planets in resonance 3:2 !

Paper (free) :
http://iopscience.io...3881/aa9be0/pdf


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#428
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http://www.caltech.e...et-system-80989

The K2-138 system: A Near-Resonant Chain of Five Sub-Neptune Planets Discovered by Citizen Scientists

Five (may be six) planets in resonance 3:2 !

Paper (free) :
http://iopscience.io...3881/aa9be0/pdf

But none of them are in the habitable zone! :(

 

Perhaps if one or more are tidally locked, people could live on the terminator line? But is there any point to this sort of venture? Abundant solar energy perhaps?


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#429
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If they have an atmospheres(most likely) then they'd  be way to hot within the day light tidally locked side and probably an outright oven globally.. The closes one is 1.6 earth radius and is probably the only one that is likely to be solid and it is way way too hot with an

Insolation of 486 times ours.
 
 
===
It really sucks that all these planets are being discovered so close to their stars.
 
An ultra-short period rocky super-Earth with a secondary eclipse and a Neptune-like companion around K2-141
Luca Malavolta, Andrew W. Mayo, Tom Louden, Vinesh M. Rajpaul, Aldo S. Bonomo, Lars A. Buchhave, Laura Kreidberg, Martti H. Kristiansen, Mercedes Lopez-Morales, Annelies Mortier, Andrew Vanderburg, Adrien Coffinet, David Ehrenreich, Christophe Lovis, Francois Bouchy, David Charbonneau, David R. Ciardi, Andrew Collier Cameron, Rosario Cosentino, Ian J. M. Crossfield, Mario Damasso, Courtney D. Dressing, Xavier Dumusque, Mark E. Everett, Pedro Figueira, Aldo F. M. Fiorenzano, Erica J. Gonzales, Raphaëlle D. Haywood, Avet Harutyunyan, Lea Hirsch, Steve B. Howell, John Asher Johnson, David W. Latham, Eric Lopez, Michel Mayor, Giusi Micela, Emilio Molinari, Valerio Nascimbeni, Francesco Pepe, David F. Phillips, Giampaolo Piotto, Ken Rice, Dimitar Sasselov, Damien Ségransan, Alessandro Sozzetti, et al. (2 additional authors not shown)
(Submitted on 10 Jan 2018)

   

Ultra-short period (USP) planets are a class of low mass planets with periods shorter than one day. Their origin is still unknown, with photo-evaporation of mini-Neptunes and in-situ formation being the most credited hypotheses. Formation scenarios differ radically in the predicted composition of USP planets, it is therefore extremely important to increase the still limited sample of USP planets with precise and accurate mass and density measurements. We report here the characterization of an USP planet with a period of 0.28 days around K2-141 (EPIC 246393474), and the validation of an outer planet with a period of 7.7 days in a grazing transit configuration. We derived the radii of the planets from the K2 light curve and used high-precision radial velocities gathered with the HARPS-N spectrograph for mass measurements. For K2-141b we thus inferred a radius of 1.51±0.05 R⊕ and a mass of 5.08±0.41 M⊕, consistent with a rocky composition and lack of a thick atmosphere. K2-141c is likely a Neptune-like planet, although due to the grazing transits and the non-detection in the RV dataset, we were not able to put a strong constraint on its density. We also report the detection of secondary eclipses and phase curve variations for K2-141b. The phase variation can be modeled either by a planet with a geometric albedo of 0.30±0.06 in the Kepler bandpass, or by thermal emission from the surface of the planet at ∼3000K. Only follow-up observations at longer wavelengths will allow us to distinguish between these two scenarios.

 

 

https://arxiv.org/abs/1801.03502


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#430
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Photometric Analysis and Transit Times of TRAPPIST-1 b and c
Brett M. Morris, Eric Agol, Suzanne L. Hawley
(Submitted on 13 Jan 2018)

 

    TRAPPIST-1 hosts seven Earth-sized planets transiting an M8 star. We observed mid-transit times of each of the inner two planets with the Astrophysical Research Consortium (ARC) 3.5 m Telescope at Apache Point Observatory (APO) to help constrain the planet masses with transit timing variations, and we outline a procedure for analyzing transit observations of late-M stars with APO. The transit times of TRAPPIST-1 b and c are BJDTDB=2457580.87634+0.00034−0.00034 and 2457558.89477+0.00080−0.00085, respectively, which will help constrain the planet masses.

 

https://arxiv.org/abs/1801.04460


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