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#261
Sciencerocks

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New breakthrough discovery—every quantum particle travels backwards
July 18, 2017 by Saskia Angenent

 

Mathematicians at the Universities of York, Munich and Cardiff have identified a unique property of quantum mechanical particles – they can move in the opposite way to the direction in which they are being pushed.

 

https://phys.org/new...m-particle.html


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#262
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Lawbreaking Particles May Point to a Previously Unknown Force in the Universe

Scientists aren’t yet certain that electrons and their relatives are violating the Standard Model of particle physics, but the evidence is mounting

 

For decades physicists have sought signs of misbehaving particles—evidence of subtle cracks in the “Standard Model” of particle physics, the dominant theory describing the most fundamental building blocks of our universe. Although the Standard Model has proved strikingly accurate, scientists have long known some adjustments will be needed. Now, as a recent review paper in Nature documents, experimenters have started seeing suggestions of particles flouting the theory—but they’re not quite the violations theorists were looking for.

 
The evidence comes from electrons and their more massive cousins, muons and tau leptons. According to the Standard Model, these three particles should behave like differently sized but otherwise identical triplets. But three experiments have produced growing evidence—including results announced in just the last few months—that the particles react differently to some as-yet mysterious influence. The findings are not yet conclusive, but if they hold up, “it would be a complete revolution,” says California Institute of Technology theorist Mark Wise.

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#263
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Ooooh, a fifth fundamental force of the universe? Found in my lifetime? I so hope so.


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#264
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Scientists discover "angel particle" that is its own antiparticle
Michael Irving Michael Irving July 20, 2017

Every fundamental particle in the universe has an antiparticle, which has the same mass but the opposite charge. If a particle should ever meet its antiparticle, the two would annihilate each other in a flash of energy. But it's long been theorized that there's an exception to the rule, with certain particles that are actually their own antiparticles. Now, scientists from Stanford and the University of California have found the first strong evidence for this type of particle, which they dub the "angel particle."

 

http://newatlas.com/...particle/50579/


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#265
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Probability that the quantum world obeys local realism is less than one in a billion, experiment shows
July 20, 2017 by Lisa Zyga feature
bell test
The experiment was performed on the Ludwig Maximilian University campus in Munich, Germany. Trap 1 is located in the basement of the physics building, and trap 2 is in the basement of the economics building, 398 meters away. Credit: Rosenfeld et al. Published by the American Physical Society

(Phys.org)—Physicists have reported some of the strongest evidence yet that that the quantum world does not obey local realism by demonstrating new evidence for the existence of quantum entanglement. By performing an essentially loophole-free Bell test, they have shown that two atoms separated by a distance of a quarter of a mile share correlations that should be impossible under the hypothesis of local realism, and are most likely explained by quantum entanglement.

 

https://phys.org/new...al-realism.html


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#266
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Scientists discover "angel particle" that is its own antiparticle

Every fundamental particle in the universe has an antiparticle, which has the same mass but the opposite charge. If a particle should ever meet its antiparticle, the two would annihilate each other in a flash of energy. But it's long been theorized that there's an exception to the rule, with certain particles that are actually their own antiparticles. Now, scientists from Stanford and the University of California have found the first strong evidence for this type of particle, which they dub the "angel particle."
The theory dates back to 1937, when physicist Ettore Majorana highlighted a gap in the fermion family of particles. Protons, electrons, neutrons, neutrinos and quarks are all fermions, and all have corresponding antiparticles, but according to Majorana's calculations, there should be particles that are their own antiparticles.


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#267
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Fundamental quantum anomaly observed on Earth
brian wang | July 22, 2017 |

An international team of physicists, materials scientists and string theoreticians have observed a phenomenon on Earth that was previously thought to only occur hundreds of light years away or at the time when the universe was born. This result could lead to a more evidence-based model for the understanding the universe and for improving the energy-conversion process in electronic devices. Previously it was thought to only occur in the early stages of the universe and within neutron stars and black holes.

IBM scientists predict this discovery will open up a rush of new developments around sensors, switches and thermoelectric coolers or energy-harvesting devices, for improved power consumption.

Using a recently discovered material called a Weyl semimetal, similar to 3D graphene, scientists at IBM Research have mimicked a gravitational field in their test sample by imposing a temperature gradient. The study was supervised by Prof. Kornelius Nielsch, Director at the Leibniz Institute for Materials and Solid State Research Dresden (IFW) and Prof. Claudia Felser, Director at the Max-Planck-Institute for Chemical Physics of Solids in Dresden.

 

https://www.nextbigf...d-on-earth.html


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#268
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First controlled vertical manipulation of a single H atom with AFM tip
brian wang | July 23, 2017 |

Due to the continuous improvement of scanning probe microscopy techniques, the long thought inaccessible goal of inducing and visualizing chemical reactions at the atomic scale is now routinely achievable by many groups around the world. In the framework of so-called mechanochemistry,
[1] mechanical force induced reactions have been studied using NCAFM.
[2] Recent works reported force induced atomic-scale switching,
[3] quantitative force measurements to induce the diffusion of single atoms
[4] and molecules,
[5] as well as studying molecular conformers
[6] and tautomerization.
[7] A few earlier studies also showed examples of mechanically induced vertical manipulation of single atoms. [8, 9] However, direct observation of mechanically induced covalent bonding of two different atoms using NC-AFM remain scarce.

 

https://www.nextbigf...th-afm-tip.html


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#269
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Scientists have created light a billion times brighter than the Sun

light one billion times brighter than the surface of the Sun has now been created in a lab, making it the brightest light ever produced on Earth.

 
The record-breaking laser beam has revealed new properties of light, and it could be used in medical equipment or to create more powerful computer chips.
A group of physicists from the University of Nebraska-Lincoln created the light by focusing a laser beam extremely intensely, bombarding a single electron with roughly 1,000 photons during each laser pulse. They then studied the properties of the light as it scattered from the electron.
They found if light is bright enough, it actually changes the appearance of the object it scatters from.


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#270
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Physicists Make a Glowing Fireball From a Magnet and a Plasma Chamber

Scientists have observed how a magnetic dipole field can create what looks like a glowing, localised fireball inside a plasma chamber.
By placing a regular dipole bar magnet near the surface of the cathode, the researchers were able to generate an intense “glowing, fireball like structure” inside the plasma chamber, which varied in its brightness depending on how they positioned the magnet.
According to the team from the Saha Institute of Nuclear Physics in India, the localised glowing results from increased ionisation in the plasma chamber, due to the way electrons are confined by the magnetic field near the negatively charged cathode surface.
Scientists have previously conducted a range of research on how magnetism interacts with plasma using chambers just like this, but most of the time those experiments involve a magnet positioned inside the chamber – which means variations in the strength of the magnetic field don’t usually show up.
By placing and repositioning a mobile magnet on the outside of the chamber, however, it highlights a different effect of the magnetic field.
“Though bar magnets have been used in plasma experiments, the focus was mainly on the measurement of plasma equilibrium parameters like density, potential, and other fluctuation measurements,” says lead researcher Pankaj Kumar Shaw.

TFyhrE0.jpg
Image Source: Shaw et al/AIP Publishing


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#271
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Physicists Have Captured the First Spectral Fingerprints of Antimatter

It’s been about nine months since a team of CERN researchers succeeded in their goal of measuring the spectrum of light emitted from hydrogen’s mirror particle, antihydrogen. They were just getting started. Now the researchers have detailed evidence of the structure of antihydrogen using spectroscopy, setting a landmark in our quest to determine why there is something in the Universe rather than nothing.
 
Led by Canadian researchers under what’s called the ALPHA Collaboration, the first detailed observation of “home made” antihydrogen’s structure has shown its spectral lines are virtually identical to those of hydrogen.
 
Had they been even slightly different this would be quite a different story, one heralding a crack in our models on the Universe that could reveal why it looks the way it does.


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#272
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Researchers set record for fastest light pulse
August 7, 2017

University of Central Florida Professor Zenghu Chang broke the record for the fastest light pulse. Credit: University of Central Florida

A research team at the University of Central Florida has demonstrated the fastest light pulse ever developed, a 53-attosecond X-ray flash.

 

 

Read more at: https://phys.org/new...-pulse.html#jCp


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#273
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ATLAS observes direct evidence of light-by-light scattering
August 15, 2017 by Katarina Anthony

Physicists from the ATLAS experiment at CERN have found the first direct evidence of high energy light-by-light scattering, a very rare process in which two photons – particles of light – interact and change direction. The result, published today in Nature Physics, confirms one of the oldest predictions of quantum electrodynamics (QED).

 

https://phys.org/new...t-by-light.html


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#274
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Physicists measure complementary properties using quantum clones
August 16, 2017 by Lisa Zyga feature

(Phys.org)—In quantum mechanics, it's impossible to precisely and simultaneously measure the complementary properties (such as the position and momentum) of a quantum state. Now in a new study, physicists have cloned quantum states and demonstrated that, because the clones are entangled, it's possible to precisely and simultaneously measure the complementary properties of the clones. These measurements, in turn, reveal the state of the input quantum system.

 

https://phys.org/new...tum-clones.html


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#275
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Physicists explore a new recipe for heating plasma
August 22, 2017 by Paul Rivenberg

The interior of the Alcator C-Mod tokamak, where experiments were conducted that have helped create a new scenario for heating plasma and achieving fusion. Credit: Bob Mumgaard/Plasma Science and Fusion Center

In the quest for fusion energy, scientists have spent decades experimenting with ways to make plasma fuel hot and dense enough to generate significant fusion power. At MIT, researchers have focused their attention on using radio-frequency (RF) heating in magnetic confinement fusion experiments like the Alcator C-Mod tokamak, which completed its final run in September 2016.

 

https://phys.org/new...ipe-plasma.html


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#276
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Quantum magnetometer arrays for magnetic detection of submarines
brian wang | August 22, 2017 |

On 21 June, the Chinese Academy of Sciences hailed a breakthrough – a major upgrade to a kind of quantum device that measures magnetic fields. Magnetometers have been used to detect submarines since the second world war. They are able to do this because they can measure an anomaly in Earth’s magnetic field – like one caused by a massive hunk of metal.

The new magnetometer, built by Xiaoming Xie and colleagues at the Shanghai Institute of Microsystem and Information Technology, uses not one SQUID but an array of them. The idea is that by comparing their readings, researchers can cancel out some of the extra artefacts generated by motion. This “would be relevant to an anti-submarine warfare device”, says David Caplin at Imperial College London, who works on magnetic sensors.

Researchers estimate that a SQUID magnetometer of this type could detect a sub from 6 kilometres away, and Caplin says that with better noise suppression the range could be much greater.

 

https://www.nextbigf...submarines.html


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#277
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Efficient generation of energetic ions in multi-ion plasmas by radio-frequency heating
brian wang | August 27, 2017 |
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Nature Physics – Efficient generation of energetic ions in multi-ion plasmas by radio-frequency heating

Researchers describe a new technique for the efficient generation of high-energy ions with electromagnetic ion cyclotron waves in multi-ion plasmas. The discussed ‘three-ion’ scenarios are especially suited for strong wave absorption by a very low number of resonant ions. To observe this effect, the plasma composition has to be properly adjusted, as prescribed by theory. We demonstrate the potential of the method on the world-largest plasma magnetic confinement device, JET (Joint European Torus, Culham, UK), and the high-magnetic-field tokamak Alcator C-Mod (Cambridge, USA). The obtained results demonstrate efficient acceleration of 3He ions to high energies in dedicated hydrogen–deuterium mixtures. Simultaneously, effective plasma heating is observed, as a result of the slowing-down of the fast 3He ions. The developed technique is not only limited to laboratory plasmas, but can also be applied to explain observations of energetic ions in space-plasma environments, in particular, 3He-rich solar flares.

 

https://www.nextbigf...cy-heating.html


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#278
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Scientists broke the record for coldest temperature of molecules at 50 millionths of a degree above absolute zero, as reported in Nature Physics

Molecules are seriously chilling out. Scientists report the first cooling of molecules below a previously impassable milestone. The result, in which scientists cooled molecules down to tens of millionths of a degree, is a step toward reaching the ultracold temperatures already achievable with atoms, researchers report August 28 in Nature Physics.
Scientists regularly chill atoms to less than a millionth of a degree above absolute zero (‒273.15° Celsius), even reaching temperatures as low as 50 trillionths of a degree (SN: 5/16/15, p. 4). But molecules are more difficult to cool down, as they can spin and vibrate in a variety of ways, and that motion is a form of heat.


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#279
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Spin Hall Effect is Measured Directly Using Light

 

http://physicsworld....tly-using-light

 

Introduction:

 

Physicists in Switzerland and Sweden say they are the first to use an optical technique to make direct measurements of the spin accumulation associated with the spin Hall effect.

 

When an electrical current passes through a thin strip made of certain materials, spin-up electrons tend to accumulate at one edge of the strip and spin-down electrons at the opposite edge of the strip. Called the spin Hall effect, it is the result of the spin–orbit interaction between the intrinsic spin of the electron and the magnetic field created by its relative motion to the ions that make up the material.

 

This spin accumulation at the edges is usually measured indirectly by placing a magnetic material next to the strip – but this can have detrimental effects on the measurement.

 

Polarization rotation

 

Now, Pietro Gambardella and colleagues at ETH Zürich and Uppsala University have used an established technique called magneto-optical Kerr microscopy to make direct measurements of the accumulated spin. This involves shining a laser on metallic strips and measuring the rotation of the polarization of the reflected light. The magnitude and direction of this Kerr rotation is proportional to the spin polarization where the reflection occurs.

 

Measurements on thin films of platinum and tungsten confirmed that spin accumulation occurs in both materials. The team was also able to show that the spin diffusion length in the platinum film was about 11 nm, which is significantly larger than that measured for a platinum film that is adjacent to a magnetic material.

2017-08-31-flash-1.jpg


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#280
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Engineers Turn a Laser Beam into a Stream of Liquid

Light usually passes straight through water and so can’t generate a stream of fluid, right? Not anymore.

 

Lasers are one of the iconic breakthroughs of 20th century science. They produce coherent photons in tight beams of specific energy. They can transmit data, detect molecules, and burn through metal. The photons they produce also have significant momentum.

 
And that raises an interesting question. Is it possible to transfer this momentum to generate matter rays such as a liquid flow? Not until now.
 
Jiming Bao at the University of Houston in Texas and a few pals say they have discovered an entirely new optofluidics process that makes it possible to use a laser beam to create a stream of liquid. The technique has widespread applications in microfluidics, biochemistry, microfabrication, and any process that depends on lab-on-chip technology.

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Also tagged with one or more of these keywords: physics, quantum physics, general relativity, science, cosmology, astrophysics, super collider, CERN, thermodynamics, statistical mechanics

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