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#281
caltrek

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Ions and atoms react in magneto-optical trap

 

http://physicsworld....to-optical-trap

 

Introduction:

 

A magneto-optical trap has been used by physicists in the US to study how ions and atoms interact to create hypermetallic alkaline earth oxides – materials that have potential technological applications.

 

Hypermetallic alkaline earth oxides are linear molecules in which an oxygen atom is sandwiched between two alkaline earth atoms. The properties of these oxides can be finely tuned through the choice of the alkaline earth atoms, creating structures that could prove useful for a wide range of applications including nonlinear optics, materials science or chemical synthesis.

 

Currently these oxides are made and studied in plasmas and this means that it is difficult to both control the process and to gain insights into how they form.

 

Quantum control

 

Now, Prateek Puri and colleagues at the University of California Los Angeles, University of Connecticut and the University of Missouri have come up with a way of making hypermetallic alkaline earth oxides by reacting ions and atoms in a magneto-optical trap. The process involves cooling the reactants to temperatures as low as 5 mK and controlling the reactants' initial quantum states. As a result they were able to make an extremely precise study of the formation of an alkaline earth-oxide ion comprising barium and calcium (BaOCa+).

 

The team began by loading barium ions into the magneto-optical trap to create a string of equally spaced ions – dubbed an ion crystal. Then molecular ions comprising barium, oxygen and a methyl group (BaOCH3+) were introduced to the trap. These were cooled through interactions with the ion crystal. Then, a cloud of about three million calcium atoms are reacted with the BaOCH3+ and the desired BaOCa+ appears as new ions in the crystal. Finally, the trap is switched off and all the ions are directed at a mass analyser that determines the make-up of the products of the reaction.

2017-09-08-earth-oxides.jpg

 

Chemical reaction: the magneto-optical trap used to study hypermetallic alkaline earth oxides


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#282
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Light Has Been Stored as Sound For The First Time

For the first time ever, scientists have stored light-based information as sound waves on a computer chip - something the researchers compare to capturing lightning as thunder.
While that might sound a little strange, this conversion is critical if we ever want to shift from our current, inefficient electronic computers, to light-based computersthat move data at the speed of light. 
Light-based or photonic computers have the potential to run at least 20 times faster than your laptop, not to mention the fact that they won't produce heat or suck up energy like existing devices.
This is because they, in theory, would process data in the form of photons instead of electrons.
We say in theory, because, despite companies such as IBM and Intel pursuing light-based computing, the transition is easier said than done.
Coding information into photons is easy enough - we already do that when we send information via optical fibre.


Nobody's gonna take my drone, I'm gonna fly miles far too high!
Nobody gonna beat my drone, it's gonna shoot into the sky!

#283
Sciencerocks

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Scientists create world's first 'molecular robot' capable of building molecules
September 20, 2017

Scientists at The University of Manchester have created the world's first 'molecular robot' that is capable of performing basic tasks including building other molecules.

The tiny robots, which are a millionth of a millimetre in size, can be programmed to move and build molecular cargo, using a tiny robotic arm.

Each individual robot is capable of manipulating a single molecule and is made up of just 150 carbon, hydrogen, oxygen and nitrogen atoms. To put that size into context, a billion billion of these robots piled on top of each other would still only be the same size as a single grain of salt.

The robots operate by carrying out chemical reactions in special solutions which can then be controlled and programmed by scientists to perform the basic tasks.

Read more at: https://phys.org/new...apable.html#jCp


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#284
caltrek

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New Quantum Phenomena in Graphene Superlattices

 

https://www.scienced...70918123603.htm

 

Introduction:

 

A team of Graphene Flagship researchers led by the University of Manchester reported in the journal Science showing the first new type of quantum oscillation to be reported for thirty years. This occurs by applying a magnetic field and it is the first of its kind to be present at high temperature and on the mesoscale. This research also sheds light on the Hofstadter butterfly phenomenon.

 

Quantum theory is the study of physics at the atomic and sub atomic level. It quantises energy and momentum and shows how objects are characterised as both particles and waves. Quantum oscillations can be used to map the properties of new materials in the presence of a magnetic field. This paper shows how it is possible to tune the magnetic field applied to a heterostructure comprising of graphene and boron nitride to create a whole host of different electronic materials.

 

The superlattice, created in graphene by its exact placement with regards to a periodically arranged boron nitride layer, interacts with the magnetic field in such a way that it is possible to tune its oscillation to manufacture bands and gaps in its electronics structure -- meaning that the magnetic field can be used to tune the materials to be metallic, semiconducting or conducting.

 

Andre Geim, a leading member of the team and the 2010 Nobel Laureate, says "Oscillatory quantum effects always present milestones in our understanding of materials properties. They are exceedingly rare. It is more than 30 years since a new type of quantum oscillation was reported." He added "Our oscillations stand out by their extreme robustness, happening under ambient conditions in easily accessible magnetic fields."

 

This work also sheds further light on Hofstadter's butterfly, a fractal pattern that describes the behaviour of electrons in a magnetic field, measured experimentally for the first time in 2013 using a graphene and boron-nitride heterostructure. In the original theoretical work on which Hofstadter's butterfly is based the electrons modelled to create the fractal pattern were treated as Bloch electrons (electrons that do not interact with one another and move within a periodic electric potential within a lattice). The research shown here illustrates how these complex fractal patterns can be viewed as Langmuir quantisation which is the quantisation of cyclotron orbits (taking what is normally thought of as a circular orbit and instead viewing it as linear)

170918123603_1_540x360.jpg

This is an example of the Hofstadter butterfly phenomenon.
Credit: The University of Manchester

The principles of justice define an appropriate path between dogmatism and intolerance on the one side, and a reductionism which regards religion and morality as mere preferences on the other.   - John Rawls


#285
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UV-irradiated amorphous ice behaves like liquid at low temperatures
September 29, 2017

UV-irradiated amorphous water ice observed by a transmission electron microscope as the temperature rose (25K/-248C/-414F, 70K/-203C/-333F, 96K/-177C/-287F, 120K/-153C/-243F). Amorphous water ice islands (the dark areas in the photos) …more

Ice analogs mimicking interstellar ice behave like liquids at temperatures between -210°C and -120°C according to Hokkaido University researchers. This liquid-like ice may enhance the formation of organic compounds including prebiotic molecules and the accretion of dust to form planets.

 

Read more at: https://phys.org/new...atures.html#jCp


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#286
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First open-access data from large collider confirm subatomic particle patterns
September 30, 2017 by Jennifer Chu

 

In November of 2014, in a first, unexpected move for the field of particle physics, the Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) experiment—one of the main detectors in the world's largest particle accelerator, the Large Hadron Collider—released to the public an immense amount of data, through a website called the CERN Open Data Portal.

 

Read more at: https://phys.org/new...rticle.html#jCp


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#287
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Shrinking the proton: Researchers confirm the small value of the proton radius determined from muonic hydrogen
October 6, 2017 by Olivia Meyer-Streng

 

It was one of the breakthroughs of the year 2010: Laser spectroscopy of muonic hydrogen resulted in a value for the proton charge radius that was significantly smaller, by four standard deviations, than previous determinations using regular hydrogen. This discrepancy and its origin have attracted much attention in the scientific community, with implications for the so-called Standard Model of physics.

https://phys.org/new...c-hydrogen.html


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#288
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Energy flow is reversed in a quantum system by mere observation
brian wang | October 9, 2017 |
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A piece of research in which the UPV/EHU-University of the Basque Country has participated confirms that merely observing a flow of energy or particles can change its direction.

In a classical thermodynamic system, the heat current flows from the hotter body to the colder one, or electricity from the higher voltage to the lower one. The same thing happens in quantum systems, but this state can be changed, and the flow of energy and particles can be reversed if a quantum observer is inserted into the system. This is the main result obtained by the group led by Professor Ángel Rubio of the UPV/EHU and of the Max Planck Institute PMSD, together with collaborators at the BCCMS centre in Bremen, and which has been echoed by the journal Nature Quantum Materials.

 

https://www.nextbigf...bservation.html


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#289
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Development of a high precision thermometer for the use at around 1000 °C
brian wang | October 10, 2017 |

 

Japanese researchers have developed a platinum resistance thermometer that can precisely measure temperature at around 1000 °C.

* Achieved by optimizing thermal treatment of platinum wires and sensor structure
* Contributes to the improvement of temperature measurement and control at high temperatures, such as in materials manufacturing processes

Platinum resistance thermometers equipped with platinum wire in their sensors are used when precise temperature measurement is necessary, such as in semiconductor manufacturing. However, at high temperatures near 1000 °C, the resistance value of the platinum wire becomes unstable, and thermal strain occurs in the platinum wire due to high temperature, causing it to become even more unstable, and making precise measurement of high temperatures difficult.

 

https://www.nextbigf...und-1000-c.html


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#290
caltrek

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Scientists find missing baryons -- half the universe's missing matter

 

https://www.upi.com/.../8151507573451/

 

Introduction:

 

Oct. 9 (UPI) -- Two separate teams of researchers have found half of the universe's hidden matter, partially solving a mystery that has long troubled astronomers.

 

When it comes to the search for missing matter, dark matter -- the mysterious, invisible material accounting for roughly 80 precent of the mass of the universe -- hogs the headlines. But astronomers have also struggled to find a lot of visible matter, too.

 

Models predict there should be roughly twice as much visible matter as is routinely observed by surveys of the cosmos.

 

Now, a pair of research teams have found the missing matter. The matter is made up of particles called baryons, heavy subatomic particles made up of three quarks. Astronomers discovered the missing baryons among strands of hot, diffuse gas linking the universe's galaxies together -- the faintest portions of what's known as the cosmic web.

 

"The missing baryon problem is solved," astronomer Hideki Tanimura told New Scientist.

Scientists-find-missing-baryons-half-the

A computer simulation renders a chunk of the cosmic web, the tangled filaments of ordinary matter the link the universe's galaxies together.

Photo by J. Onorbe/MPIA


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#291
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Two teams independently test Tomonaga–Luttinger theory
October 20, 2017 by Bob Yirka report

Sketch of the experimental setup used by Yang et al. Arrays of rubidium-87 atoms, cooled and trapped by laser beams, exhibit Tomonaga-Luttinger liquid (TLL) behavior. Credit: Philip Krantz, Krantz NanoArt, adapted by APS/Alan Stonebraker, via Physics

(Phys.org)—Two teams of researchers working independently of one another have found ways to test aspects of the Tomonaga–Luttinger theory that describes interacting quantum particles in 1-D ensembles in a Tomonaga–Luttinger liquid (TLL). The first team, with members from China, Germany and Australia demonstrated TLL behavior with cold atoms in a 1-D array. The second team, with members from Australia, Germany and Russia, tested TLL predictions using a 1-D array of Josephson junctions to look at the impact of disorder in TLL physics. Both teams have published details of their work in Physical Review Letters.

 

Read more at: https://phys.org/new...theory.html#jCp


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#292
Sciencerocks

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Why is our universe three dimensional? Cosmic knots could untangle the mystery
Physics
Michael Irving

 

Next time you're untangling your earbuds in frustration, here's an idea to help put it in perspective: knots may have played a crucial part in kickstarting our universe, and without them we wouldn't live in three dimensions. That's the strange story pitched by a team of physicists in a new paper, and the idea actually helps plug a few plot holes in the origin story of the universe.

 

https://newatlas.com...universe/51834/


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#293
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Physicists propose test of quantum gravity using current technology
October 27, 2017 by Lisa Zyga feature
 

Proposed experimental setup to probe the effects of noncommutative structure. Credit: S. Dey et al. ©2017 Nuclear Physics B

Physicists have proposed a way to test quantum gravity that, in principle, could be performed by a laser-based, table-top experiment using currently available technology. Although a theory of quantum gravity would overcome one of the biggest challenges in modern physics by unifying general relativity and quantum mechanics, currently physicists have no way of testing any proposed theories of quantum gravity.

 

 

Read more at: https://phys.org/new...nology.html#jCp


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#294
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Russian scientists find flaws in popular theories of gravity
October 27, 2017

 

Using a model of black holes, scientists from the Ural Federal university (UrFU, Yekaterinburg) determined that a popular theory of gravity that seemed to work perfectly at the cosmological level (a subclass of Horndeski theory) does not apply in the real world. They have published their results in Classical and Quantum Gravity.

 

 

Read more at: https://phys.org/new...eories.html#jCp


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#295
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Teleportation and traversible wormholes are all real
brian wang | October 29, 2017 |

 

Einstein-Rosen or “ER” bridges, are equivalent to entangled quantum particles, also known as Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen or “EPR” pairs. The quantum connection between wormholes prevents their collapse without involving exotic matter.

The quantum-teleportation format precludes using these traversable wormholes as time machines. Anything that goes through the wormhole has to wait for Alice’s message to travel to Bob in the outside universe before it can exit Bob’s black hole, so the wormhole doesn’t offer any superluminal boost that could be exploited for time travel.

Researchers are working towards lab tests of quantum teleportation to verify their theories.

 

https://www.nextbigf...e-all-real.html


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#296
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Teleportation and traversible wormholes are all real
brian wang | October 29, 2017 |

 

Einstein-Rosen or “ER” bridges, are equivalent to entangled quantum particles, also known as Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen or “EPR” pairs. The quantum connection between wormholes prevents their collapse without involving exotic matter.

The quantum-teleportation format precludes using these traversable wormholes as time machines. Anything that goes through the wormhole has to wait for Alice’s message to travel to Bob in the outside universe before it can exit Bob’s black hole, so the wormhole doesn’t offer any superluminal boost that could be exploited for time travel.

Researchers are working towards lab tests of quantum teleportation to verify their theories.

 

https://www.nextbigf...e-all-real.html

So Light Speed travel? That's still a good improvement over current speeds.



#297
caltrek

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Quantum control of chemical reactions achieved with electrons

 

http://physicsworld....-with-electrons

 

Entire Article:

 

(PhysicsWorld.Com) Directing chemical reactions by exploiting the quantum nature of electrons has been demonstrated for the first time by physicists at the Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, India, and the Open University in the UK. The technique could prove a cheaper alternative to lasers, which until now have been the main way researchers have sought to achieve coherent control of chemical reactions.

 

Tata's E Krishnakumar and collaborators exposed molecular hydrogen and deuterium to a low-energy electron beam, and used a velocity map imaging (VMI) apparatus developed by Nigel Masonand colleagues at the Open University to observe the angular distribution of the reaction products (see video). Electrons interacting with hydrogen or deuterium molecules formed temporary negative ions in a process called resonant attachment. The molecular ions then dissociated to form neutral atoms and stable hydrogen or deuterium ions.

 

Unexpected asymmetry

 

Homonuclear diatomic molecules like hydrogen are inversion-symmetric, so such dissociative attachment involving just one electron should result in a symmetric distribution of ion products. Under the laser-induced scheme, the inversion symmetry is only broken when two coherent photons deliver odd and even angular momenta simultaneously. Yet the velocity slice images obtained by the team using VMI showed a distinct asymmetry along the inter-nuclear axis.

 

According to the researchers, a single electron can achieve the same symmetry breaking when it causes a superposition of two negative ion resonances with opposite parity. As the resulting quantum paths interfere, the relative phase between them determines the degree of asymmetry in the fragmentation pattern produced.

 

Understanding the dynamics of electron-induced dissociation will allow further insight into natural processes like radiation damage to DNA, and promises improved control over chemical reactions and nanofabrication techniques.


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#298
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Fusion of quark doubly heavy baryons would generate eight times more power than regular fusion
brian wang | November 8, 2017 |
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In nuclear fusion, energy is produced by the rearrangement of protons and neutrons. There is theoretical work that indicates that quark fusion would generate eight times more power than hydrogen fusion.

Nature – Quark-level analogue of nuclear fusion with doubly heavy baryons

The essence of nuclear fusion is that energy can be released by the rearrangement of nucleons between the initial- and final-state nuclei. The recent discovery1 of the first doubly charmed baryon which contains two charm quarks © and one up quark (u) and has a mass of about 3,621 megaelectronvolts (MeV) (the mass of the proton is 938 MeV) also revealed a large binding energy of about 130 MeV between the two charm quarks. Here we report that this strong binding enables a quark-rearrangement, exothermic reaction in which two heavy baryons (Λc) undergo fusion to produce the doubly charmed baryon and a neutron, resulting in an energy release of 12 MeV. This reaction is a quark-level analogue of the deuterium–tritium nuclear fusion reaction (DT → 4He n). The much larger binding energy (approximately 280 MeV) between two bottom quarks (b) causes the analogous reaction with bottom quarks to have a much larger energy release of about 138 MeV. Researchers suggest some experimental setups in which the highly exothermic nature of the fusion of two heavy-quark baryons might manifest itself. At present, however, the very short lifetimes of the heavy bottom and charm quarks preclude any practical applications of such reactions.

The Large Hadron Collider should be capable of testing quark fusion.

 

https://www.nextbigf...lar-fusion.html


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#299
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Another dark matter particle candidate has been ruled out, narrowing the search
Physics
Michael Irving

Scientists searching for the elusive dark matter, which appears to make up 80 percent of the matter in the universe, have managed to narrow down the range of possible suspects. Researchers at the University of Sussex have disproved the existence of certain kinds of axions, particles that are a leading candidate for dark matter, and while it may send physicists back to the drawing board, the hunt can be more focused in future.

Dark matter is a tricky substance to pin down. Since it doesn't interact with electromagnetic radiation, it doesn't reflect light at all and can't be directly observed, but its gravitational effects can still be felt. The movements of stars and galaxies don't make sense based on visible matter alone, leading astronomers in the 1930s to hypothesize that some unseen mass was at play. And scientists have been searching for it ever since.

 

https://newatlas.com...uled-out/52213/


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#300
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Measurements From CERN Suggest the Possibility of a New Physics

 

Recent measurements from the Large Hadron Collider show a discrepancy with Standard Model predictions that may hint at entirely new realms of the universe underlying what’s described by quantum physics. Although repeated tests are required to confirm these anomalies, a confirmation would signify a turning point in our most fundamental description of particle physics to date.

 
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