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#301
Sciencerocks

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Physicists unify quantum coherence with nonclassicality of light
November 20, 2017 by Lisa Zyga feature
 

 

(Phys.org)—Physicists have demonstrated that two independently developed concepts—quantum coherence and the nonclassicality of light—both arise from the same underlying resources. The ability to explain seemingly distinct phenomena within a single framework has long been a fulfilling aspiration in physics, and here it may also have potential applications for quantum information technologies.

 

https://phys.org/new...assicality.html



#302
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Separate experiments show no evidence of violation of Lorentz invariance
November 20, 2017 by Bob Yirka report
 

 

(Phys.org)—Two teams of researchers working independently of one another have conducted experiments designed to test Lorentz invariance; both report no violations. One of the teams used decades of data from lunar lasing experiments, the other data from experiments conducted over several years using superconducting gravimeters. Both teams have published papers in the journal Physical Review Letters describing their work and their findings.

 

https://phys.org/new...invariance.html



#303
Sciencerocks

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Physicists design $100 handheld muon detector
November 20, 2017

 

At any given moment, the Earth's atmosphere is showered with high-energy cosmic rays that have been blasted from supernovae and other astrophysical phenomena far beyond the Solar System. When cosmic rays collide with the Earth's atmosphere, they decay into muons—charged particles that are slightly heavier than an electron.

 

https://phys.org/new...n-detector.html



#304
Sciencerocks

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Physicists open the door to the first direct measurement of Berry curvature in solid matter
November 22, 2017 by Julie Cohen

Berry curvature may not be the most well-known scientific concept, but to many physicists, its direct measurement is something akin to a holy grail.

 

 

Read more at: https://phys.org/new...-solid.html#jCp



#305
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Physicists develop faster way to make Bose-Einstein condensates
November 23, 2017 by Jennifer Chu

 

The world of an atom is one of random chaos and heat. At room temperatures, a cloud of atoms is a frenzied mess, with atoms zipping past each other and colliding, constantly changing their direction and speed.

 

Read more at: https://phys.org/new...nsates.html#jCp



#306
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Physicists make most precise measurement ever of the proton's magnetic moment
November 24, 2017
 

 

An international collaboration of scientists from RIKEN's Ulmer Fundamental Symmetries Laboratory (FSL), Johannes Gutenberg-Universität Mainz, Max Planck Institute for Nuclear Physics, Heidelberg and GSI Darmstadt, have used high-precision techniques to make the most precise measurement to date of the magnetic moment of the proton, finding it to be 2.79284734462 plus or minus 0.00000000082 nuclear magnetons, the unit typically used to measure this property. The magnetic moment, a property of particles that gives rise to magnetism, is one of the fundamental properties of the proton and is key to understanding properties such as the structure of atoms.

 

 

Read more at: https://phys.org/new...moment.html#jCp



#307
caltrek

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Mechanical metamaterial twists when squeezed

http://physicsworld....s-when-squeezed

 

 

Introduction:

 

(Physicsworld.com) A rationally designed metamaterial that twists in response to a linear force has been engineered by researchers at Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Germany, and Université de Bourgogne Franche-Comté, France. The material consists of a repeating array of sub-millimetre units, each of which has a chiral structure.

 

In ordinary continuum mechanics, twisting motions never result from simple linear forces. Instead, squeezing an elastic object always causes it to expand at right angles to the direction of compression. By using precisely structured cells as the constituents, however, Tobias Frenzel and colleagues created a metamaterial crystal that can respond to pressure by deforming rotationally at a rate of more than 2° per % of shortening.

 

The researchers used numerical modelling to decide on a cubic form for the unit cells, and then demonstrated the configuration physically in a 3D-laser-printed polymer structure. When a given cell is compressed, rings in each face of the cube are made to rotate, pulling the corners of each cell around with them.

 

Frenzel and his team found that using a greater number of smaller cells – while keeping the overall size of the sample constant – caused the stiffness of the structure to increase and the twisting effect to diminish. This contrasts with the behaviour expected in classical continuum mechanics, in which rotational strain would be forbidden, and stiffness would be scale-independent.

 

The design of materials with custom elastic behaviour could allow engineers to create mechanical analogues of optical metamaterials. One potential application suggested by the researchers is the construction of passive or active structures to steer force fields or mechanical waves around obstacles.


The principles of justice define an appropriate path between dogmatism and intolerance on the one side, and a reductionism which regards religion and morality as mere preferences on the other.   - John Rawls


#308
Sciencerocks

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MACHOs are dead. WIMPs are a no-show. Say hello to SIMPs: New candidate for dark matter
December 4, 2017 by Robert Sanders

 

The intensive, worldwide search for dark matter, the missing mass in the universe, has so far failed to find an abundance of dark, massive stars or scads of strange new weakly interacting particles, but a new candidate is slowly gaining followers and observational support.

 

Read more at: https://phys.org/new...-simps.html#jCp



#309
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Physicists excited by discovery of new form of matter, excitonium
December 8, 2017 by Siv Schwink

 

Excitonium has a team of researchers at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign... well... excited! Professor of Physics Peter Abbamonte and graduate students Anshul Kogar and Mindy Rak, with input from colleagues at Illinois, University of California, Berkeley, and University of Amsterdam, have proven the existence of this enigmatic new form of matter, which has perplexed scientists since it was first theorized almost 50 years ago.

 

 

Read more at: https://phys.org/new...tonium.html#jCp


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#310
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Researchers Stumble Upon a New Type of Quantum Material

 

In Brief A team of researchers has discovered a new quantum material that's been dubbed a Weyl-Kondo semimetal. It could potentially shape our search for other such materials.
ELI5?

#311
Jakob

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Seems a little clickbaity, meh.

 

Physicists Have Created a Set of Conditions in Which Time Seems to Run in Reverse

 

While we all take for granted the fact that time’s arrow forever points towards the future, physicists have always had trouble showing why this is necessarily the case.

A mix of chloroform and acetone might seem like an odd place to hunt for clues, but researchers have used just such a combination to create conditions where for some purposes time actually appears to move backwards.

This research won’t take us on a journey to see dinosaurs, but it just might tell us why our Universe is stuck on a one way street.



#312
caltrek

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Hmmmm....maybe dark matter (and dark energy) is just that part of the universe that is running backward in time.


The principles of justice define an appropriate path between dogmatism and intolerance on the one side, and a reductionism which regards religion and morality as mere preferences on the other.   - John Rawls


#313
Jakob

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Hmmmm....maybe dark matter (and dark energy) is just that part of the universe that is running backward in time.

I'm not sure that would match current observations of it.



#314
caltrek

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Origin of the blueshift of water molecules at interfaces of hydrophilic cyclic compounds

 

http://advances.sciencemag.org/content/3/12/e1701400

 

Introduction:

 

 

(Science) Water molecules at interfaces of materials exhibit enigmatic properties. A variety of spectroscopic studies have observed a high-frequency motion in these water molecules, represented by a blueshift, at both hydrophobic and hydrophilic interfaces. However, the molecular mechanism behind this blueshift has remained unclear. Using Raman spectroscopy and ab initio molecular dynamics simulations, we reveal the molecular mechanism of the blueshift of water molecules around six monosaccharide isomers. In the first hydration shell, we found weak hydrogen-bonded water molecules that cannot have a stable tetrahedral water network. In the water molecules, the vibrational state of the OH bond oriented toward the bulk solvent strongly contributes to the observed blueshift. Our work suggests that the blueshift in various solutions originates from the vibrational motions of these observed water molecules.

The principles of justice define an appropriate path between dogmatism and intolerance on the one side, and a reductionism which regards religion and morality as mere preferences on the other.   - John Rawls


#315
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Curiously Aligned Cloud Formations Stream Across the Atlantic as Artic Air Blows Above Warm Ocean Waters

 

http://blogs.discovermagazine.com/imageo/2017/12/30/curious-cloud-formations-stream-across-the-atlantic/

 

Introduction:

 

(Discover) Baby, it’s cold outside!

 

If you live pretty much anywhere in Canada, or in the United States east of the Rockies, that wonderful song from the 1940s pretty much sums up the conditions as 2017 draws to a close. And when revelers watch the ball drop in New York City’s Times Square on New Years Eve, they will have to endure forecast temperatures of 10°F – with a wind chill of -5°F.

 

The brisk northwesterly winds that have carried the bitterly cold Arctic air have given rise to beautiful cloud formations over the Atlantic Ocean. You can see them in the animation of above, consisting of GOES-16 satellite imagery: long, parallel rows of cumulus clouds pouring to the southeast.

 

These cloud formations are a well known phenomenon known as “cloud streets.” This graphic from NOAA, along with the explanation from NASA’s Earth Observatory, can help you visualize what’s going on:

 

Cloud streets are long parallel bands of cumulusclouds that form when cold air blows over warmer waters and a warmer air layer (temperature inversion) rests over the top of both. The comparatively warm water gives up heat and moisture to the cold air above, and columns of heated air called thermalsnaturally rise through the atmosphere. The temperature inversion acts like a lid. When the rising thermals hit it, they roll over and loop back on themselves, creating parallel cylinders of rotating air. As this happens, the moisture cools and condenses into flat-bottomed, fluffy-topped cumulus clouds that line up parallel to the direction of the prevailing winds.

cloud-street-formation-noaa-480-300x138.

 

Credit: NOAA


The principles of justice define an appropriate path between dogmatism and intolerance on the one side, and a reductionism which regards religion and morality as mere preferences on the other.   - John Rawls


#316
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Quantum 'spooky action at a distance' becoming practical
January 5, 2018, Griffith University

 

A team from Griffith's Centre for Quantum Dynamics in Australia have demonstrated how to rigorously test if pairs of photons - particles of light - display Einstein's "spooky action at a distance", even under adverse conditions that mimic those outside the lab.

They demonstrated that the effect, also known as quantum nonlocality, can still be verified even when many of the photons are lost by absorption or scattering as they travel from source to destination through an optical fiber channel. The experimental study and techniques are published in the journal Science Advances.

Quantum nonlocality is important in the development of new global quantum information networks, which will have transmission security guaranteed by the laws of physics. These are the networks where powerful quantum computers can be linked.

 

Read more at: https://phys.org/new...stance.html#jCp



#317
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Negative mass particles forged in new laser device

 

In our everyday experience, if you push something, it moves away from you. But objects with negative mass would turn that basic principle on its head and accelerate towards you instead. It sounds like science fiction but the idea is theoretically possible, and its effects have been observed in recent experiments. Now, scientists from the University of Rochester have developed a device that can create particles that exhibit negative mass.

 

https://newatlas.com...articles/52848/


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#318
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LLNL 10 shot per second Petawatt laser installed
brian wang | January 10, 2018

1Save

 

The L3-HAPLS advanced petawatt laser system was installed last week at the ELI Beamlines Research Center (link is external)in Dolní Břežany, Czech Republic. L3-HAPLS — the world’s most advanced and highest average power, diode-pumped petawatt laser system — was designed, developed and constructed in only three years by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory’s (LLNL) NIF and Photon Science (NIF&PS) Directorate and delivered to ELI Beamlines in June 2017.

L3-HAPLS consists of a main petawatt beamline, energized by diode-pumped “pump” lasers. The system was constructed, assembled and ramped to an intermediary performance milestone that demonstrated its capability and marked the milestone for shipping and integrating with the facility. Staff from ELI was extensively trained on the laser’s assembly and operation while at Livermore to ensure success in transferring the HAPLS technology to the ELI user facility.

 

https://www.nextbigf...-installed.html



#319
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Later in the 2020s Zettawatt lasers and Yottawott lasers in 2030 will explore extreme physics

 

Detailed exawatt laser systems are being designed now. Pulsed lasers are rapidly reaching higher power by shortening the pulses and increasing the power. Multiple ten petawatt systems are either operating or being completed now. 2018 and 2019 will see several 50, 100 and 200 Petawatt laser systems. The peak power of pulsed laser systems is increasing by 1000 times every ten years.

Zettawatt pulsed laser systems were considered a few years ago.

Zettawatt-exawatt lasers and their applications in ultrastrong-field physics (2002)

Sounds like it would take more energy than we have available, but what do I know?


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#320
Yuli Ban

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And remember my friend, future events such as these will affect you in the future.






Also tagged with one or more of these keywords: physics, quantum physics, general relativity, science, cosmology, astrophysics, super collider, CERN, thermodynamics, statistical mechanics

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