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#61
Yuli Ban

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A superconductor advance using ‘superatoms’

A unique property of size-resolved metal nanocluster particles is their “superatom”-like electronic shell structure. The shell levels are highly degenerate, and it has been predicted that this can enable exceptionally strong superconducting-type electron pair correlations in certain clusters composed of just tens to hundreds of atoms. Here we report on the observation of a possible spectroscopic signature of such an effect. A bulge-like feature appears in the photoionization yield curve of a free cold aluminum cluster and shows a rapid rise as the temperature approaches ≈100 K. This is an unusual effect, not previously reported for clusters. Its characteristics are consistent with an increase in the effective density of states accompanying a pairing transition, which suggests a high-temperature superconducting state with Tc ≳ 100 K. Our results highlight the promise of metal nanoclusters as high-Tc building blocks for materials and networks.


Superatom-illustration2.jpg
Superconductivity is the ability to transmit electricity without resistance (credit: USC/Original image/DC Comics Mystery in Space #56, December 1959)
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#62
Jakob

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Let There Be Light! Photo Shows Light As Wave And Particle For First Time

 

Quantum mechanics is an incredibly complex field for a simple reason: So much of what it studies can be two different things at the exact same time. Light is a great example since it behaves like both a particle and a wave, but only appears in one state during experiments. Mathematically speaking, we have to treat light as both ways for the universe to make sense but actually confirming it visually has been impossible. Or at least that was the case until scientists from Switzerland's École polytechnique fédérale de Lausanne developed their own unique photography method.

The image was created by shooting a pulse of laser light at a metallic nanowire to make its charged particles vibrate. Next the scientists fired a stream of electrons past the wire holding the trapped light. When the two collided, it created an energy exchange that could be photographed from the electron microscope.

That picture...if it weren't copyrighted, I'd use it as a profile pic.


Edited by Jakob, 03 March 2015 - 01:56 AM.

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#63
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Quantum radar could detect stealth cancer cells or aircraft

A prototype “quantum radar” that has the potential to detect objects that are invisible to conventional systems has been developed by an international research team led by a quantum information scientist at the University of York.

The new breed of radar is a hybrid system that uses quantum correlation between microwave and optical beams to detect objects of low reflectivity such as cancer cells or aircraft with a stealth capability. Because the quantum radar operates at much lower energies than conventional systems, it has the long-term potential for a range of applications in biomedicine, including non-invasive nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) scans.


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#64
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Two quantum properties teleported together for first time

 

 

The values of two inherent properties of one photon – its spin and its orbital angular momentum – have been transferred via quantum teleportation onto another photon for the first time by physicists in China. Previous experiments have managed to teleport a single property, but scaling that up to two properties proved to be a difficult task, which has only now been achieved. The team's work is a crucial step forward in improving our understanding of the fundamentals of quantum mechanics and the result could also play an important role in the development of quantum communications and quantum computers.

 

double-teleport-1.jpg


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#65
Jakob

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Engineers create color-changing synthetic 'skin'

 

Engineers at the University of California Berkeley have created a thin film, inspired by the skin of chameleons, that changes colors when pulled or stretched. 

According to Berkeley.edu, the "skin," a film of silicon a thousand times thinner than a human hair, could be applied as camouflage or used to show stress on structures, by changing colors when a surface bends or flexes.


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#66
Ru1138

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Detection of mini black holes at the LHC could indicate parallel universes in extra dimensions

 

(Phys.org)—The possibility that other universes exist beyond our own universe is tantalizing, but seems nearly impossible to test. Now a group of physicists has suggested that the Large Hadron Collider (LHC), the largest particle collider in the world, may be able to uncover the existence of parallel universes, should they exist.

 

In a new paper published in Physics Letters B, Ahmed Farag Ali, Mir Faizal, and Mohammed M. Khalil explain that the key to finding parallel universes may come from detecting miniature black holes at a certain energy level. The detection of the mini black holes would indicate the existence of extra dimensions, which would support string theory and related models that predict the existence of extra dimensions as well as parallel universes.

 


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#67
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3,000 ATOMS ENTANGLED WITH A SINGLE PHOTON

 

 

 

Physicists from MIT and the University of Belgrade have developed a new technique that can successfully entangle 3,000 atoms using only a single photon. The results, published today in the journal Nature, represent the largest number of particles that have ever been mutually entangled experimentally.

 
The researchers say the technique provides a realistic method to generate large ensembles of entangled atoms, which are key components for realizing more-precise atomic clocks.

 

Well, this seems rather extraordinary. I wonder if this has other implications than just clocks. If we're starting to be able to entangle very large amounts (relatively speaking) of particles, wouldn't that be a massive boost to quantum computing and such? I honestly have no idea, just wondering.



#68
tierbook

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3,000 ATOMS ENTANGLED WITH A SINGLE PHOTON

 

 

 

Physicists from MIT and the University of Belgrade have developed a new technique that can successfully entangle 3,000 atoms using only a single photon. The results, published today in the journal Nature, represent the largest number of particles that have ever been mutually entangled experimentally.

 
The researchers say the technique provides a realistic method to generate large ensembles of entangled atoms, which are key components for realizing more-precise atomic clocks.

 

Well, this seems rather extraordinary. I wonder if this has other implications than just clocks. If we're starting to be able to entangle very large amounts (relatively speaking) of particles, wouldn't that be a massive boost to quantum computing and such? I honestly have no idea, just wondering.

Seems like it would provide advances to large scale teleportation, no?



#69
Sciencerocks

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How about molecule assemblers?

Photon 'afterglow' could transmit information without transmitting energy
15 hours ago by Lisa Zyga feature

 

(Phys.org)—Physicists have theoretically shown that it is possible to transmit information from one location to another without transmitting energy. Instead of using real photons, which always carry energy, the technique uses a small, newly predicted quantum afterglow of virtual photons that do not need to carry energy. Although no energy is transmitted, the receiver must provide the energy needed to detect the incoming signal—similar to the way that an individual must pay to receive a collect call.

 

Read more at: http://phys.org/news...energy.html#jCp


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#70
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Cern's Large Hadron Collider restarts with sights set on dark matter

 

http://www.theguardi...-on-dark-matter

 

Two years ago the team operating the £3.74bn machine straddling the Swiss-French border astounded the world with the discovery of the Higgs boson, an elementary particle that gives other particles mass.

Now they have their sights set on an even more exotic trophy: dark matter, the invisible, undetectable material that makes up 84% of matter in the universe and binds galaxies together yet whose nature is unknown.

With its beam energy level raised to 13 tera-electron volts (TeV) it is conceivable that the LHC will capture dark matter, marking a leap forward in our understanding of the universe.


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#71
Sciencerocks

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Magnetic-field detector is 1,000 times more efficient than its predecessors
2 hours ago by Larry Hardesty

MIT researchers have developed a new, ultrasensitive magnetic-field detector that is 1,000 times more energy-efficient than its predecessors. It could lead to miniaturized, battery-powered devices for medical and materials imaging, contraband detection, and even geological exploration.

Magnetic-field detectors, or magnetometers, are already used for all those applications. But existing technologies have drawbacks: Some rely on gas-filled chambers; others work only in narrow frequency bands, limiting their utility.

Synthetic diamonds with nitrogen vacancies (NVs)—defects that are extremely sensitive to magnetic fields—have long held promise as the basis for efficient, portable magnetometers. A diamond chip about one-twentieth the size of a thumbnail could contain trillions of nitrogen vacancies, each capable of performing its own magnetic-field measurement.

The problem has been aggregating all those measurements. Probing a nitrogen vacancy requires zapping it with laser light, which it absorbs and re-emits. The intensity of the emitted light carries information about the vacancy's magnetic state.

 

 

Read more at: http://phys.org/news...essors.html#jCp


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#72
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New magnet at Fermilab achieves high-field milestone

 

 

Last month, a new superconducting magnet developed and fabricated at Fermilab reached its design field of 11.5 Tesla at a temperature nearly as cold as outer space. It is the first successful twin-aperture accelerator magnet made of niobium-3-tin in the world.

The advancements in niobium-3-tin, or Nb3Sn, magnet technology and the ongoing U.S. collaboration with CERN on the development of these and other Nb3Sn magnets are enabling the use of this innovative technology for future upgrades of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). They may also provide the cornerstone for future circular machines of interest to the worldwide high-energy physics community. Because of the exceptional challenges—Nb3Sn is brittle and requires high-temperature processing—this important milestone was achieved at Fermilab after decades of worldwide R&D efforts both in the Nb3Sn conductor itself and in associated magnet technologies.

 

 

Read more at: http://phys.org/news...estone.html#jCp


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#73
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New understanding of electromagnetism could enable 'antennas on a chip'

2 hours ago
   

 


A team of researchers from the University of Cambridge have unravelled one of the mysteries of electromagnetism, which could enable the design of antennas small enough to be integrated into an electronic chip. These ultra-small antennas - the so-called 'last frontier' of semiconductor design - would be a massive leap forward for wireless communications.

 

Read more at: http://phys.org/news...s-chip.html#jCp


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#74
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Fermilab's Holometer Extends Limit on Knowable Universe

 

Newswise — Imagine an instrument that can measure motions a billion times smaller than an atom that last a millionth of a second. Fermilab's Holometer is currently the only machine with the ability to take these very precise measurements of space and time, and recently collected data has improved the limits on theories about exotic objects from the early universe.

 

Our universe is as mysterious as it is vast. According to Albert Einstein's theory of general relativity, anything that accelerates creates gravitational waves, which are disturbances in the fabric of space and time that travel at the speed of light and continue infinitely into space. Scientists are trying to measure these possible sources all the way to the beginning of the universe.

 

 

Interesting results so far.


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#75
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Physicists stop and store light traveling in an optical fiber

Researchers at the Kastler Brossel Laboratory in Paris have managed to store light that propagates in an optical fiber and to release it later on demand. By causing interaction between the traveling light and a few thousand atoms in the vicinity, they demonstrated an all-fibered memory.
In the May 8th issue of the Physical Review Letters, Prof. Julien Laurat and his colleagues at Pierre and Marie Curie University report that they have devised optical memory integrated into an optical fiber. The team created a way to stop and store the light that usually propagates in a fiber at a speed as fast as 200,000 kilometers per second. This capability represents an important advance in optical communications, as fibers are at the heart of our worldwide telecommunication system, but also for a future quantum Internet, in which quantum information can be transported and synchronized between interconnected nodes.


stoppingligh.jpg
Light propagating in a glass fiber can be halted and reemitted later on demand via its interaction with cold cesium atoms in the vicinity of an elongated area. This device provides an all-fibered memory for light, an essential ingredient for the creation of future quantum networks. Credit: Julia Fraud – juliafraud.com/Laboratoire Kastler Brossel
 


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#76
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The Large Hadron Collider Just Detected Extremely Rare Particle Decays

 

Scientists at the Large Hadron Collider have just announced the detection of a rare particle decay “harder to find than the famous Higgs particle.” The strange B meson is certainly a lot less famous than the Higgs boson, but it also has an important role to play in the Standard Model of particle physics.

 

For the past several decades, particle physics has been governed by the Standard Model, which allows physicists to classify all subatomic particles and make predictions about particles and processes still not yet observed. Its predictions are thus far born out—the existence of the Higgs boson being the most famous example.

 


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#77
Yuli Ban

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Thought Graphene Was Weird? Simulations predict 2D flat liquid


Computer simulations have predicted a new phase of matter: atomically thin two-dimensional liquid.
This prediction pushes the boundaries of possible phases of materials further than ever before. Two-dimensional materials themselves were considered impossible until the discovery of graphene around ten years ago. However, they have been observed only in the solid phase, because the thermal atomic motion required for molten materials easily breaks the thin and fragile membrane. Therefore, the possible existence of an atomically thin flat liquid was considered impossible.
Now researchers from the Nanoscience Center at the University of Jyväskylä, led by Academy Research Fellow Pekka Koskinen, have conducted computer simulations that predict a liquid phase in atomically thin golden islands that patch small pores of graphene. According to the simulations, gold atoms flow and change places in the plane, while the surrounding graphene template retains the planarity of liquid membrane.


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#78
Yuli Ban

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The Large Hadron Collider smashes energy record with test collisions - 13 TeV is a new regime - nobody's been here before - The best thing that could possibly happen is that we find something that nobody has predicted at all


On Wednesday night, two opposing beams of protons were steered into each other at the four collision points spaced around the LHC's tunnel.
The energy of the collisions was 13 trillion electronvolts - dwarfing the eight trillion reached during the LHC's first run, which ended in early 2013.
"Physics collisions" commence in June.
At that point, the beams will contain many more "bunches" of protons: up to 2,800 instead of the one or two currently circulating. And the various experiments will be in full swing, with every possible detector working to try to sniff out all the exotic, unprecedented particles of debris that fly out of proton collisions at these new energies.

For comparison, we found the Higgs Boson at 4 TeV.
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#79
Yuli Ban

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Large-scale simulations of atom dynamics

An international research team has developed a highly efficient novel method for simulating the dynamics of very large systems potentially containing millions of atoms, up to 1000 times more than current conventional methods.   This advance will open up a range of possibilities for accurately studying complex matter, for example biomolecules in solution, and gaining a previously unattainable understanding of processes such as electron, water or ion transport or chemical reactions. 
Until now, the size of the systems modelled with established first-principles methods has generally been limited, due to time and complexity, to only a few hundred atoms. For the first time, this new method provides the means of performing atomic and electronic structure simulations on much larger systems, potentially uncovering a range of new and unknown properties.


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#80
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Scientists show future events decide what happens in the past

An experiment by Australian scientists has proven that what happens to particles in the past is only decided when they are observed and measured in the future. Until such time, reality is just an abstraction.

The Australian scientists set up an experiment similar to the double-slit one to try to estimate when particles took on a particle or wave form.
But instead of using light, they applied helium atoms, which are "heavier" than light photons, in the sense that photons have no mass, whereas atoms do. This was significant they said.
“Quantum physics predictions about interference seem odd enough when applied to light, which seems more like a wave, but to have done the experiment with atoms, which are complicated things that have mass and interact with electric fields and so on, adds to the weirdness,” said PhD student Roman Khakimov, who was involved in the experiment.
Nevertheless, they expected the atom to behave just like light, meaning that it would take on both the form of a particle and/or a wave. This time they fired the atoms at two grate-like forms created by lasers, although the effect was similar to a solid grate.
However, the second grate was only put in place after the atom had passed through the first one. And the second grate wasn't applied each time, only randomly, to see how the particles reacted differently.
What they found was that, when there were two grates in place, the atom passed through it on many paths in a wave form, but, when the second grate was removed, it behaved like a particle and took only one path through.
So, what form it would take after passing through the first grate depended on whether the second grate was put in place afterward. Therefore, whether it continued as a particle or changed into a wave wasn't decided until a future event had already taken place.
Time went backwards. Cause and effect appear to be reversed. The future caused the past. The arrow of time seemed to work in reverse.


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Also tagged with one or more of these keywords: physics, quantum physics, general relativity, science, cosmology, astrophysics, super collider, CERN, thermodynamics, statistical mechanics

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