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History of Humans & Primates

humans primates cro magnon neanderthals proto-human evolution hunter-gatherer human evolution australopithecus primate evolution

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#241
Outlook

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It's more likely that humans and neanderthals simply intermixed and everyone now has a little bit of neanderthal in them due the nature of genetics.
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Outlook's secret song of the ~week: https://youtu.be/QAlMaVYIzqw

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#242
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First hominins on the Tibetan Plateau were Denisovans

by Max Planck Society

So far, Denisovans were only known from a small collection of fossil fragments from Denisova Cave in Siberia. A research team now describes a 160,000-year-old hominin mandible from Xiahe in China. Using ancient protein analysis, the researchers found that the mandible's owner belonged to a population that was closely related to the Denisovans from Siberia. This population occupied the Tibetan Plateau in the Middle Pleistocene and was adapted to this low-oxygen environment long before Homo sapiens arrived in the region.

 

Denisovans—an extinct sister group of Neandertals—were discovered in 2010, when a research team led by Svante Pääbo from the Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology (MPI-EVA) sequenced the genome of a fossil finger bone found at Denisova Cave in Russia and showed that it belonged to a hominin group that was genetically distinct from Neandertals. "Traces of Denisovan DNA are found in present-day Asian, Australian and Melanesian populations, suggesting that these ancient hominins may have once been widespread," says Jean-Jacques Hublin, director of the Department of Human Evolution at the MPI-EVA. "Yet so far the only fossils representing this ancient hominin group were identified at Denisova Cave."

 

https://phys.org/new...denisovans.html


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#243
Yuli Ban

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Are Humans Equipped for a Big Data World?

Evolution does not work quickly. It takes many generations for our genetic code to adapt to changing environments and circumstances. What this means is that our 21st century human genome is still basically the genome of a caveman.
Our genome was well-adapted to the environment of our hunter-gatherer ancestors, because that environment lasted for hundreds of thousands of years. Unfortunately, the 21st century world we live in bears little resemblance to the prehistoric world. Most of the change has occurred in the past few centuries, and ongoing change is only accelerating.
The prehistoric world was a “small-data” world. It was in this world that the human propensity toward confirmation bias first developed. Confirmation bias is the tendency to favor information that confirms our preconceived beliefs — and to ignore data that contradicts those beliefs.
When a caveman walked in the woods and heard a rustling noise behind him, he had very little data on whether it was a leopard or a squirrel making that sound. Cavemen had to infer danger or opportunity from limited data inputs. When they heard a growl or a squeak, it would reinforce a hunch, and they would act accordingly. But our ancestors were mostly inferring things and acting on hunches based on locally accessible information. The small data set they relied on was a product of their five senses and their limited personal experience of the small world in which they wandered.
A caveman’s life was one of actions, not data browsing. Coming to the conclusion that the rustle behind him was a leopard required a very quick decision. The instant he heard a growl, he needed to act. So forming a hunch — and then being extremely open to rapid confirmation or reinforcement of that hunch — was a critical survival tactic.
As a result, confirmation bias was more important to human survival in a small-data world. It became highly ingrained in our genetically controlled brain development.
But ever since the Age of Enlightenment, and certainly since the advent of the Internet, we no longer live in a small-data world. Today we are being overwhelmed by the data around us. We live in a Big Data world.

And everyone on the forum knows I love talking about this topic.


And remember my friend, future events such as these will affect you in the future.


#244
Sciencerocks

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Earliest known signs of cannabis smoking unearthed in China
Incense burners found at 2,500-year-old cemetery suggest intentional use of to get high

Ian Sample Science editor
@iansample
Wed 12 Jun 2019 14.00 EDT Last modified on Wed 12 Jun 2019 16.03 EDT



Scorched wooden incense burners unearthed at an ancient burial ground in the mountains of western China contain the oldest clear evidence of cannabis smoking yet found, archaeologists say.

Residues of high potency cannabis found in the burners, and on charred pebbles placed inside them, suggest that funeral rites at the 2,500-year-old Jirzankal cemetery in the Pamir mountains may have been rather hazy affairs.

Scientists believe the stones were heated in a fire before being transferred to the wooden braziers and covered with cannabis, which duly billowed psychoactive smoke. With music as an accompaniment, the heady fumes may have prompted those present to attempt to commune with nature, spirits or the dead.

Researchers have found remnants of cannabis at ancient sites in Central Asia before, but the latest discovery points to the intentional use of plants with high levels of the active compound, THC, and to cannabis being inhaled rather than ingested.

 

More:
https://www.theguard...arthed-in-china



#245
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Scholars say Philistine genes help solve biblical mystery

by: ILAN BEN ZION, Associated Press

Posted: Jul 3, 2019 / 02:13 PM EDT / Updated: Jul 3, 2019 / 02:21 PM EDT
a45d661c4ba74ebe9fd66bd2864e80f2.jpg?res

File – This Tuesday, June 28, 2016 file photo shows an archeologist taking notes at an ancient Phillstine cemetery near Ashkelon, Israel. Human remains from an ancient Philistine cemetery have yielded precious bits of DNA that researchers say helps prove the European origin of the enigmatic nemeses of the Biblical Israelites. (AP Photo/Tsafrir Abayov, File)

 
 

JERUSALEM (AP) — Goliath the Greek? Human remains from an ancient cemetery in southern Israel have yielded precious bits of DNA that a new study says help prove the European origin of the Philistines — the enigmatic nemeses of the biblical Israelites.

The Philistines mostly resided in five cities along the southern coast of what is today Israel and the Gaza Strip during the early Iron Age, around 3,000 years ago. In the Bible, David fought the Philistine giant Goliath in a duel, and Samson slew a thousand of their warriors with the jawbone of an ass.

 

https://www.wpri.com...blical-mystery/



#246
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Earliest modern human found outside Africa

 

Researchers have found the earliest example of our species (modern humans) outside Africa.

A skull unearthed in Greece has been dated to 210,000 years ago, at a time when Europe was occupied by the Neanderthals.

The sensational discovery adds to evidence of an earlier migration of people from Africa that left no trace in the DNA of people alive today.

 

https://www.bbc.co.u...onment-48913307

 

 

_107796890_skull.jpg


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#247
caltrek

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Here is more on that Apidima Cave finding:

 

 


An early dispersal of modern humans from Africa to Greece

 

https://www.nature.c...586-019-02075-9

 

Introduction:

 

(Nature) The origin and early dispersal of Homo sapiens has long been a subject of both popular and scholarly interest1. It is almost universally agreed that H. sapiens (modern humans) evolved in Africa, with the earliest known fossil representatives of our species dated to around 315,000 years ago in Morocco (at a site called Jebel Irhoud)2 and approximately 260,000 years ago in South Africa (at Florisbad)3. Stone tools comparable to those found with both of these fossils have been excavated in Kenya (at Olorgesailie)4 and dated to about 320,000 years ago. Writing in Nature, Harvati et al.5 describe their analysis of a fossil from Apidima Cave in southern Greece that they report to be an early modern H. sapiens at least 210,000 years old. This fossil is the oldest known modern human in Europe, and probably in all of Eurasia, and is more than 160,000 years older than the next oldest known European fossil of H. sapiens6.

d41586-019-02075-9_16903552.jpg


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The principles of justice define an appropriate path between dogmatism and intolerance on the one side, and a reductionism which regards religion and morality as mere preferences on the other.   - John Rawls


#248
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Ancient DNA extracted from Neanderthal fossils of Gibraltar for the first time

by Natural History Museum

A new collaborative study, led by the Natural History Museum and the Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology, has extracted ancient DNA from the Neanderthal fossils of Gibraltar for the first time. The new study has confirmed the sex of the skulls and in the case of the fossil discovered in Forbes' Quarry, has related it to Neanderthals beyond Gibraltar.

 

The Neanderthal fossils of Gibraltar are among the most prominent finds in palaeontology. The fossils are some of the most historic of their kind, having been discovered at Forbes' Quarry in 1848 and Devil's Tower in 1926. The authors of the new study used a DNA preparation method that reduces modern contamination prior to sequencing, to isolate the Neanderthal DNA component.

 

https://phys.org/new...-gibraltar.html


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#249
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Human history, in ice. And it’s melting away.
 

https://grist.org/ar...-frozen-in-ice/

 

Introduction:

 

(Grist) You don’t have to be a rocket scientist to guess that the Black Death—the plague that killed at least one-third of Europe’s population during the Middle Ages—wasn’t great for the economy. But to pinpoint how long that economic decline lasted, you could ask a climate scientist. (It was about 100 years.)

 

It turns out that if you go far enough north, all the way to the remote, freezing Arctic, climate science can tell you a lot about history. The gigantic ice sheets at the Earth’s poles didn’t just suddenly appear one day—they built up over tens of thousands of years, capturing pockets of air and chemical traces of the environmental conditions of the Earth at the time the ice froze. And since humans have been polluting the air for a very long time, there’s a record of our economic activity frozen in the icy depths.

 

recent study published in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences tied the rise and fall of lead in Arctic ice samples to economically significant historical events over the course of the last 2,500 years, from the Roman Empire to the present. Climate scientists and historians worked together to conduct the research, using data from 13 ice samples taken from different regions around the Arctic.

 

Atmospheric lead pollution and economic growth shared a “direct link,” said study coauthor Nathan Chellman, because of lead’s ties to money. Production of precious ores used for currency, especially silver, was pretty much the only source of lead pollution for many centuries.

 

“There weren’t many major technological changes in mining and smelting processes during the Middle Ages and in the Early Modern period, so we were able to see a lot of the linkages to historical events,” said Chellman, a hydrologist at the Desert Research Institute in Nevada.

shutterstock_76114315.jpg

Image courtesy of Shutterstock


The principles of justice define an appropriate path between dogmatism and intolerance on the one side, and a reductionism which regards religion and morality as mere preferences on the other.   - John Rawls






Also tagged with one or more of these keywords: humans, primates, cro magnon, neanderthals, proto-human, evolution, hunter-gatherer, human evolution, australopithecus, primate evolution

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