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History of Humans & Primates

humans primates cro magnon neanderthals proto-human evolution hunter-gatherer human evolution australopithecus primate evolution

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#241
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It's more likely that humans and neanderthals simply intermixed and everyone now has a little bit of neanderthal in them due the nature of genetics.
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Outlook's secret song of the ~week: https://youtu.be/DGe_Sluth3A


#242
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First hominins on the Tibetan Plateau were Denisovans

by Max Planck Society

So far, Denisovans were only known from a small collection of fossil fragments from Denisova Cave in Siberia. A research team now describes a 160,000-year-old hominin mandible from Xiahe in China. Using ancient protein analysis, the researchers found that the mandible's owner belonged to a population that was closely related to the Denisovans from Siberia. This population occupied the Tibetan Plateau in the Middle Pleistocene and was adapted to this low-oxygen environment long before Homo sapiens arrived in the region.

 

Denisovans—an extinct sister group of Neandertals—were discovered in 2010, when a research team led by Svante Pääbo from the Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology (MPI-EVA) sequenced the genome of a fossil finger bone found at Denisova Cave in Russia and showed that it belonged to a hominin group that was genetically distinct from Neandertals. "Traces of Denisovan DNA are found in present-day Asian, Australian and Melanesian populations, suggesting that these ancient hominins may have once been widespread," says Jean-Jacques Hublin, director of the Department of Human Evolution at the MPI-EVA. "Yet so far the only fossils representing this ancient hominin group were identified at Denisova Cave."

 

https://phys.org/new...denisovans.html


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#243
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Are Humans Equipped for a Big Data World?

Evolution does not work quickly. It takes many generations for our genetic code to adapt to changing environments and circumstances. What this means is that our 21st century human genome is still basically the genome of a caveman.
Our genome was well-adapted to the environment of our hunter-gatherer ancestors, because that environment lasted for hundreds of thousands of years. Unfortunately, the 21st century world we live in bears little resemblance to the prehistoric world. Most of the change has occurred in the past few centuries, and ongoing change is only accelerating.
The prehistoric world was a “small-data” world. It was in this world that the human propensity toward confirmation bias first developed. Confirmation bias is the tendency to favor information that confirms our preconceived beliefs — and to ignore data that contradicts those beliefs.
When a caveman walked in the woods and heard a rustling noise behind him, he had very little data on whether it was a leopard or a squirrel making that sound. Cavemen had to infer danger or opportunity from limited data inputs. When they heard a growl or a squeak, it would reinforce a hunch, and they would act accordingly. But our ancestors were mostly inferring things and acting on hunches based on locally accessible information. The small data set they relied on was a product of their five senses and their limited personal experience of the small world in which they wandered.
A caveman’s life was one of actions, not data browsing. Coming to the conclusion that the rustle behind him was a leopard required a very quick decision. The instant he heard a growl, he needed to act. So forming a hunch — and then being extremely open to rapid confirmation or reinforcement of that hunch — was a critical survival tactic.
As a result, confirmation bias was more important to human survival in a small-data world. It became highly ingrained in our genetically controlled brain development.
But ever since the Age of Enlightenment, and certainly since the advent of the Internet, we no longer live in a small-data world. Today we are being overwhelmed by the data around us. We live in a Big Data world.

And everyone on the forum knows I love talking about this topic.


And remember my friend, future events such as these will affect you in the future.


#244
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Earliest known signs of cannabis smoking unearthed in China
Incense burners found at 2,500-year-old cemetery suggest intentional use of to get high

Ian Sample Science editor
@iansample
Wed 12 Jun 2019 14.00 EDT Last modified on Wed 12 Jun 2019 16.03 EDT



Scorched wooden incense burners unearthed at an ancient burial ground in the mountains of western China contain the oldest clear evidence of cannabis smoking yet found, archaeologists say.

Residues of high potency cannabis found in the burners, and on charred pebbles placed inside them, suggest that funeral rites at the 2,500-year-old Jirzankal cemetery in the Pamir mountains may have been rather hazy affairs.

Scientists believe the stones were heated in a fire before being transferred to the wooden braziers and covered with cannabis, which duly billowed psychoactive smoke. With music as an accompaniment, the heady fumes may have prompted those present to attempt to commune with nature, spirits or the dead.

Researchers have found remnants of cannabis at ancient sites in Central Asia before, but the latest discovery points to the intentional use of plants with high levels of the active compound, THC, and to cannabis being inhaled rather than ingested.

 

More:
https://www.theguard...arthed-in-china



#245
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Scholars say Philistine genes help solve biblical mystery

by: ILAN BEN ZION, Associated Press

Posted: Jul 3, 2019 / 02:13 PM EDT / Updated: Jul 3, 2019 / 02:21 PM EDT
a45d661c4ba74ebe9fd66bd2864e80f2.jpg?res

File – This Tuesday, June 28, 2016 file photo shows an archeologist taking notes at an ancient Phillstine cemetery near Ashkelon, Israel. Human remains from an ancient Philistine cemetery have yielded precious bits of DNA that researchers say helps prove the European origin of the enigmatic nemeses of the Biblical Israelites. (AP Photo/Tsafrir Abayov, File)

 
 

JERUSALEM (AP) — Goliath the Greek? Human remains from an ancient cemetery in southern Israel have yielded precious bits of DNA that a new study says help prove the European origin of the Philistines — the enigmatic nemeses of the biblical Israelites.

The Philistines mostly resided in five cities along the southern coast of what is today Israel and the Gaza Strip during the early Iron Age, around 3,000 years ago. In the Bible, David fought the Philistine giant Goliath in a duel, and Samson slew a thousand of their warriors with the jawbone of an ass.

 

https://www.wpri.com...blical-mystery/



#246
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Earliest modern human found outside Africa

 

Researchers have found the earliest example of our species (modern humans) outside Africa.

A skull unearthed in Greece has been dated to 210,000 years ago, at a time when Europe was occupied by the Neanderthals.

The sensational discovery adds to evidence of an earlier migration of people from Africa that left no trace in the DNA of people alive today.

 

https://www.bbc.co.u...onment-48913307

 

 

_107796890_skull.jpg


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#247
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Here is more on that Apidima Cave finding:

 

 


An early dispersal of modern humans from Africa to Greece

 

https://www.nature.c...586-019-02075-9

 

Introduction:

 

(Nature) The origin and early dispersal of Homo sapiens has long been a subject of both popular and scholarly interest1. It is almost universally agreed that H. sapiens (modern humans) evolved in Africa, with the earliest known fossil representatives of our species dated to around 315,000 years ago in Morocco (at a site called Jebel Irhoud)2 and approximately 260,000 years ago in South Africa (at Florisbad)3. Stone tools comparable to those found with both of these fossils have been excavated in Kenya (at Olorgesailie)4 and dated to about 320,000 years ago. Writing in Nature, Harvati et al.5 describe their analysis of a fossil from Apidima Cave in southern Greece that they report to be an early modern H. sapiens at least 210,000 years old. This fossil is the oldest known modern human in Europe, and probably in all of Eurasia, and is more than 160,000 years older than the next oldest known European fossil of H. sapiens6.

d41586-019-02075-9_16903552.jpg


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The principles of justice define an appropriate path between dogmatism and intolerance on the one side, and a reductionism which regards religion and morality as mere preferences on the other.   - John Rawls


#248
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Ancient DNA extracted from Neanderthal fossils of Gibraltar for the first time

by Natural History Museum

A new collaborative study, led by the Natural History Museum and the Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology, has extracted ancient DNA from the Neanderthal fossils of Gibraltar for the first time. The new study has confirmed the sex of the skulls and in the case of the fossil discovered in Forbes' Quarry, has related it to Neanderthals beyond Gibraltar.

 

The Neanderthal fossils of Gibraltar are among the most prominent finds in palaeontology. The fossils are some of the most historic of their kind, having been discovered at Forbes' Quarry in 1848 and Devil's Tower in 1926. The authors of the new study used a DNA preparation method that reduces modern contamination prior to sequencing, to isolate the Neanderthal DNA component.

 

https://phys.org/new...-gibraltar.html


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#249
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Human history, in ice. And it’s melting away.
 

https://grist.org/ar...-frozen-in-ice/

 

Introduction:

 

(Grist) You don’t have to be a rocket scientist to guess that the Black Death—the plague that killed at least one-third of Europe’s population during the Middle Ages—wasn’t great for the economy. But to pinpoint how long that economic decline lasted, you could ask a climate scientist. (It was about 100 years.)

 

It turns out that if you go far enough north, all the way to the remote, freezing Arctic, climate science can tell you a lot about history. The gigantic ice sheets at the Earth’s poles didn’t just suddenly appear one day—they built up over tens of thousands of years, capturing pockets of air and chemical traces of the environmental conditions of the Earth at the time the ice froze. And since humans have been polluting the air for a very long time, there’s a record of our economic activity frozen in the icy depths.

 

recent study published in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences tied the rise and fall of lead in Arctic ice samples to economically significant historical events over the course of the last 2,500 years, from the Roman Empire to the present. Climate scientists and historians worked together to conduct the research, using data from 13 ice samples taken from different regions around the Arctic.

 

Atmospheric lead pollution and economic growth shared a “direct link,” said study coauthor Nathan Chellman, because of lead’s ties to money. Production of precious ores used for currency, especially silver, was pretty much the only source of lead pollution for many centuries.

 

“There weren’t many major technological changes in mining and smelting processes during the Middle Ages and in the Early Modern period, so we were able to see a lot of the linkages to historical events,” said Chellman, a hydrologist at the Desert Research Institute in Nevada.

 

 

 

Image courtesy of Shutterstock [deleted by wjfox]


The principles of justice define an appropriate path between dogmatism and intolerance on the one side, and a reductionism which regards religion and morality as mere preferences on the other.   - John Rawls


#250
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Recursive language and modern imagination were acquired simultaneously 70,000 years ago

5 Aug 2019

A genetic mutation that slowed down the development of the prefrontal cortex (PFC) in two or more children may have triggered a cascade of events leading to acquisition of recursive language and modern imagination 70,000 years ago.

This new hypothesis, called Romulus and Remus and coined by Dr. Vyshedskiy, a neuroscientist from Boston University, might be able to solve the long-standing mystery of language evolution. It is published in the open-science journal Research Ideas and Outcomes (RIO).

Numerous archeological and genetic evidence have already convinced most paleoanthropologists that the speech apparatus has reached essentially modern configurations before the human line split from the Neanderthal line 600,000 years ago. Considering that the chimpanzee communication system already has 20 to 100 different vocalizations, it is likely that the modern-like remodeling of the vocal apparatus extended our ancestors' range of vocalizations by orders of magnitude. In other words, by 600,000 years ago, the number of distinct verbalizations used for communication must have been on par with the number of words in modern languages.

On the other hand, artifacts signifying modern imagination, such as composite figurative arts, elaborate burials, bone needles with an eye, and construction of dwellings arose not earlier than 70,000 years ago. The half million-year-gap between the acquisition of the modern speech apparatus and modern imagination has baffled scientists for decades.

 

Read more: https://www.eurekale...p-rla080219.php

 

 

7AhdPOL.jpg

 

The lion-man sculpture from Germany (dated to 37,000 years ago) must have been first imagined by the artist by mentally synthesizing parts of the man and beast together and then executing the product of this mental creation in ivory. The composite artworks provide a direct evidence that by 37,000 years ago humans have acquired prefrontal synthesis.


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#251
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Image courtesy of Shutterstock

 

Shutterstock requires the purchase of licences to use their images. Please don't embed their images here.



#252
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Image courtesy of Shutterstock

 

Shutterstock requires the purchase of licences to use their images. Please don't embed their images here.

 

Understood


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The principles of justice define an appropriate path between dogmatism and intolerance on the one side, and a reductionism which regards religion and morality as mere preferences on the other.   - John Rawls


#253
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Humans migrated to Mongolia much earlier than previously believed

by Kathleen Holder, UC Davis

Stone tools uncovered in Mongolia by an international team of archaeologists indicate that modern humans traveled across the Eurasian steppe about 45,000 years ago, according to a new University of California, Davis, study. The date is about 10,000 years earlier than archaeologists previously believed.

 

The site also points to a new location for where modern humans may have first encountered their mysterious cousins, the now extinct Denisovans, said Nicolas Zwyns, an associate professor of anthropology and lead author of the study.

 

https://phys.org/new...previously.html


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#254
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Ancient DNA puts a face on the mysterious Denisovans, extinct cousins of Neanderthals

 

https://www.sciencem...ns-neanderthals

 

Introduction:

 

(Science) Many of us can picture the face of a Neanderthal, with its low forehead, beetled brows, and big nose. But until now, even scientists could only guess at the features of the extinct Denisovans, who once thrived across Asia. For more than 10 years, these close cousins of Neanderthals have been identified only by their DNA in a handful of scrappy fossils.

 

Now, a new method has given the Denisovans a face. A recently developed way to glean clues about anatomy from ancient genomes enabled researchers to piece together a rough composite of a young girl who lived at Denisova Cave in Siberia in Russia 75,000 years ago. The results suggest a broad-faced species that would have looked distinct from both humans and Neanderthals.

 

Ludovic Orlando, a molecular archaeologist at the University of Copenhagen who wasn't involved in the work, calls the approach "clever." But he and others caution against making specieswide generalizations based on a single individual.


Perhaps 600,000 years ago, the lineage that led to modern humans split from the one that led to Neanderthals and Denisovans. Then about 400,000 years ago, Denisovans and Neanderthals themselves split into separate branches. Denisovans ranged from Siberia to Southeast Asia and may have persisted until as recently as 30,000 years ago, based on their genetic legacy in living Southeast Asians.

 

Hundreds of Neanderthal skeletons, including intact skulls, have been found over the years. But the only fossils conclusively linked to Denisovans are a pinkie bone from the girl plus three teeth, all from Denisova Cave, and a recently identified lower jaw from China's Baishiya Karst Cave.

ca_0920NID_Denisovan_Reconstruction_onli

This artist's reconstruction, based on anatomical estimates from a new method, shows the face of a Denisovan girl from Siberia in Russia.

 

MAAYAN HAREL


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The principles of justice define an appropriate path between dogmatism and intolerance on the one side, and a reductionism which regards religion and morality as mere preferences on the other.   - John Rawls


#255
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250-million-year-old evolutionary remnants seen in muscles of human embryos
 
1 OCT 2019
 
A team of evolutionary biologists, led by Dr. Rui Diogo at Howard University, USA, and writing in the journal Development, have demonstrated that numerous atavistic limb muscles - known to be present in many limbed animals but usually absent in adult humans - are actually formed during early human development and then lost prior to birth. Strikingly, some of these muscles, such as the dorsometacarpales shown in the picture, disappeared from our adult ancestors more than 250 million years ago, during the transition from synapsid reptiles to mammals.
 
Also remarkably, in both the hand and the foot, of the 30 muscles formed at about 7 weeks of gestation one third will become fused or completely absent by about 13 weeks of gestation. This dramatic decrease parallels what happened in evolution and deconstructs the myth that in both our evolution and prenatal development we tend to become more complex, with more anatomical structures such as muscles being continuously formed by the splitting of earlier muscles. These findings offer new insights into how our arms and legs evolved from our ancestors', and also about human variations and pathologies, as atavistic muscles are often found either as rare variations in the common human population or as anomalies found in humans born with congenital malformations.
 
 
 
8rlG2Sc.jpg


#256
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Surveying archaeologists across the globe reveals deeper and more widespread roots of the human age

 

https://theconversat...ropocene-122008

 

Extract:

(The Conservation) We asked over 1,300 archaeologists from around the world to contribute their knowledge on how ancient people used the land in 146 regions spanning all continents except Antarctica from 10,000 years ago right up to 1850. More than 250 responded, representing the largest expert archaeology crowdsourcing project ever undertaken, though some prior projects have worked with amateur contributions.

 

…Our archaeologists reported that nearly half (42%) of our regions had some form of agriculture by 6,000 years ago, highlighting the prevalence of agricultural economies across the globe. Moreover, these results indicate that the onset of agriculture was earlier and more widespread than suggested in the most common global reconstruction of land-use history, the History Database of the Global Environment. This is important because climate scientists often use this database of past conditions to estimate future climate change; according to our research it may be underestimating land-use-associated climate effects.

 

Our survey also revealed that hunting and foraging was generally replaced by pastoralism (raising animals such as cows and sheep for food and other resources) and agriculture in most places, though there were exceptions. In a few areas, reversals occurred and agriculture did not simply replace foraging but merged with it and coexisted side by side for some time.

 

…Global archaeological data show that human transformation of environments began at different times in different regions and accelerated with the emergence of agriculture. Nevertheless, by 3,000 years ago, most of the planet was already transformed by hunter-gatherers, farmers and pastoralists.

file-20190822-170906-v68d5h.png?ixlib=rb

Human practices like burning the landscape – as in this night bush fire outside Kabwe, Zambia – have been affecting the Earth since long before the nuclear era.

 Andrea Kay, CC BY-SA


The principles of justice define an appropriate path between dogmatism and intolerance on the one side, and a reductionism which regards religion and morality as mere preferences on the other.   - John Rawls


#257
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Israel cave bones: Early humans 'conserved food to eat later'
 
10 October 2019
 
Scientists in Israel say they have found evidence that early humans deliberately stored bones from animals to eat the fatty marrow later.
 
It is the earliest evidence that humans living between 200,000 and 420,000 years ago had the foresight to anticipate future needs, they say.
 
Early humans had not previously been thought capable of such dietary planning.
 
Researchers analysed bone specimens at Qesem cave near Tel Aviv.
 
They identified cut marks on most of the bone surfaces - consistent with preservation and delayed consumption.
 

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#258
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Egypt unveils trove of ancient coffins excavated in Luxor

by Farid Farid

Egypt revealed Saturday a rare trove of 30 ancient wooden coffins that have been well-preserved over millennia in the archaeologically rich Valley of the Kings in Luxor.

 

The antiquities ministry officially unveiled the discovery made at Asasif, a necropolis on the west bank of the Nile River, at a press conference against the backdrop of the Hatshepsut Temple.

"This is the first discovery in Asasif by dedicated Egyptian hands, comprised of archaeologists, conservationists and workers," the head of the Supreme Council of Antiquities, Mostafa al-Waziri, told reporters.

The 30 ornately decorated coffins of men, women and children were found only a metre (three feet) underground, stacked in two rows. They are believed to belong to family members of high priests.

Waziri explained that excavations of the site in the 19th century had revealed royal tombs, but this latest discovery had yielded a collection of priests' burials.

The sarcophagi date back to the 22nd Dynasty, founded around 3,000 years ago in the 10th century BC.

 

https://phys.org/new...nt-coffins.html



#259
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Ancestral home of modern humans is in Botswana, study finds

Mon 28 Oct 2019 16.00 GMT

Scientists claim to have traced the ancestral home region of all living humans to a vast wetland that sprawled over much of modern day Botswana and served as an oasis in an otherwise parched expanse of Africa.

The swathe of land south of the Zambezi River became a thriving home to Homo sapiens 200,000 years ago, the researchers suggest, and sustained an isolated, founder population of modern humans for at least 70,000 years.

The group remained in the region until a shift in the climate, driven by changes in the Earth’s tilt and orbit, brought rains to the north-east and south-west, producing lush green corridors that allowed the early humans to spread into new territories, the scientists say.

“We have known for a long time that modern humans originated in Africa and roughly 200,000 years ago, but what we hadn’t known until this study was where exactly,” said Prof Vanessa Hayes, a geneticist and senior author on the study at the Garvan Institute of Medical Research in Sydney.

The conclusions, which have raised eyebrows among some experts, are based on an analysis of 1,217 samples of mitochondrial DNA, the genetic material in tiny battery-like mitochondria found in most cells. All of the DNA used in the study came from people living in southern Africa today, including the Khoisan, a population who speak with “click” consonants and traditionally practiced foraging.

 

https://www.theguard...ana-study-finds

 

 

Zv7R93E.jpg


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#260
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QrfaSLG.gif

 

 

Why couldn't Australopithecus and Paranthropus survive to the present? It's a tragedy of history! So many human species, and so many quasi & pseudo-human genera all gone and we're stuck with the burden of trying to engineering them back from the dead (providing we actually have the ethical will to do so).


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And remember my friend, future events such as these will affect you in the future.






Also tagged with one or more of these keywords: humans, primates, cro magnon, neanderthals, proto-human, evolution, hunter-gatherer, human evolution, australopithecus, primate evolution

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