Last round, 2000s.
The timeline is mostly pretty good until about 2035!
The United States' natural gas boom has spurred on a revitalization of the airship industry.
I'm not sure it's plausible that airships will become a thing again. Certainly possible, but we don't appear to be going in that direction now. Remember, 2025 is only 8.5 years away, and there's currently no talk of reviving airships AFAIK. More likely is that in the civilian sector, we'll see electricity-powered planes, a revitalization of supersonic passenger aircraft, and perhaps things like the 'Sky Whale'. (All of these things have been considered) And in the military sector, there might be hypersonic scramjet aircraft (though perhaps not as soon as 2025).
Determined to maintain economic and social unity, the European Union is reorganized into the European Federation, where countries like Germany, France, and Italy cease to be autonomous states in favor of being unified states under one flag.
This is probably very unlikely in this timeframe, barring a fantastically strange event on the world stage. If the EU changes fundamentally by 2035, it'll most likely be fragmenting and/or collapsing. Maybe if the EU does survive that, this could happen towards the last quarter of a century, in response to the formation of other super-states, though.
Legitimate artificial intelligence meanwhile is in prototype development.
This is probably about the right timeframe, but the timeline doesn't really explore the ramifications of this. It should result in massive, decades-long economic unrest, extreme technological unemployment, and so on. In a good future (which I take it you want the timeline to be), humanity and capitalism would pull through, but the education system would be changed forever: hyper-competitive, extremely fast-paced, incredibly broad and deep, with failure in anything being utterly unthinkable. The nature of education will also be changed, focusing on people learning to think and generate new knowledge, instead of just learning what's already known.
Saudi Arabia and Iran hold talks for the first time to work on an Official Alliance, despite their political and religious differences. This will not be an easy task after 60+ years of animosity towards one-another. But with oil on the decline and little else to export, many middle-east nations run the risk of becoming unsustainable.
It's possible, but as you point out, they've got extreme differences with each other. I guess they could join together under heavy international pressure, but on their own, it's unlikely they'd do this. And if Russia can build an economy around exporting oil in the 2070s, why can't the Middle East do it in the 2040s?
Within a decade most African nations become part of the African Confederation, though it's still a loose coalition of states with semi-autonomy still allowed by each former country, Johannesburg becomes the unofficial government center though other cities like Nairobi and Cape Town hold significant political sway.
I tried to emulate this idea in one of my own timelines, but as Eyalin--who lives in Nairobi--pointed out, there's a vanishingly small chance that the nations of Africa would willingly unify in the 2050s unless something really crazy happened. It's possible it could happen by force (either from other countries, or by a highly powerful and charismatic leader from within), though, but it would probably be highly unstable. The warlords won't be the problem; the common citizens will. If it were in the last quarter of the century, it might work slightly better.
wanting greater economic prosperity through trade and resource gathering, the United States, Mexico, and Canada form the United North American States.
This is probably the most unlikely super-state of all, especially as early as 2070 (though it may happen in the 22nd century). The United States is now (and by the look of the timeline) remains the most powerful nation on Earth (or at least tied for the position). What would they have to gain from giving up their sovereignty? It would likely take a seriously shocking swerve on the world stage for this to happen. They can form an economic alliance without merging politically, also.
A long awaited probe is sent to Jupiter's ice moon Europa to land on the icy surface and find a possible site for a future drilling area.
Russia has plans to send an unmanned lander to Ganymede as early as 2030. In fairness, that's not Europa, but there's no reason to assume that exploration of the Jovian system will stagnate for almost half a century. (Personally, I hope to see a manned expedition to Europa or Ganymede by 2060, but that's just me, and it may be too optimistic. Still, 2116 (the date you have for the first manned expedition) is probably too pessimistic.)
The next 20 years see the two super-nations in a political struggle and small scale proxy wars to absorb the remaining sovereign countries in Central America and the Caribbean Sea.
Sounds a bit imperialistic. How do the Central American and Carribean people feel about being absorbed? A world government is cool, but the fact is, not everyone will want one.
There are now 4 super nations that span 4 continents respectively, all functioning under democracy. Public opinion no longer allows the creation of dictatorships, for those that still exist such as North Korea, their days are numbered.
Dictators don't really care about public opinion all that much; they seize power through propaganda, conspiracy, and/or military force. Not saying that any of these new super-states should be dictators, just nitpicking.
Other probes are sent to the asteroid belt in search of valuable rare earth minerals like gold, titanium, platinum, palladium, and cobalt, in the hopes of finding new sources of rapidly dwindling and much needed resources.
So there is asteroid mining after all! Makes me wonder why there are resource problems in the 22nd century. That aside, you don't need to go all the way out to the asteroid belt to mine asteroids. There are thousands, if not millions of near-Earth asteroids, each of them containing a trillion dollars' worth of precious metal. Mining of these, as I mentioned last post, is likely to begin within 20 years' time.
PS: Asteroid don't just contain metals; some of them also contain a lot of potentially valuable volatiles.
Androids with sophisticated virtual intelligence are now seen working amongst the human population in basic jobs such as package delivery, waste collection, and language translation.
I think you mean "artificial intelligence", not "virtual intelligence".
I rally like the concept of androids, they make for a lot of interesting plots. But these won't be their applications. Package delivery will be taken care of by drones (Amazon is experimenting with this already), and language translation will be done perfectly by apps in our phones and computers within a few years (we already have Google Translate; progress in machine translation will inevitably occur rapidly).
If these androids are intelligent, as you say, then perhaps some of them may desire rights. This could make an interesting premise for a plot.
Artificial Intelligence has now become commercially available, but the prohibitive cost restricts it to use by militaries and governments or large corporations.
In the previous sentence, you described intelligent androids commonly working among humans.
3D replication has shifted manufacture of day to day items from large factories across the world that have to set up large assembly lines to create specific types of goods into medium and small businesses across the world that offer “on the spot” production of virtually any tangible object, to the specific request of the consumer.
This is probably accurate, but why are there laws referencing assembly line production a century and a half later (see my post on the 23rd century), if assembly lines are going obsolete now?
Earth's population has reached 10 Billion and across the world many nations have put into effect child limit policies. Most nations limit it to 3 children, some of the more overpopulated nations like India and China restrict it to 2 children. Major health improvements across the world have made extended life expectancy a problem with overpopulation. As fertile land becomes harder to find without further deforestation, Urbanized Agriculture has been booming where skyscrapers are built consisting of dozens of floors, each with the sole purpose of growing crops.
Overpopulation isn't a problem when you have high technology. Especially if it's only risen to 10 billion. Child limit policies are also a flagrant violation of individual rights.
This is just a pet peeve of mine. It's sadly not even terribly implausible.
but there is a new concept of creating A.I. that has been discussed in the scientific community involving the duplication of the incredibly complex neural network of the Human brain as well as the social, psychological, and emotional development of A.I. Donated brains are being tested for the creation of artificial sentience, though this is a long way off.
And it apparently never arrives? Despite the fact that virtually all futurists predict it'll arrive before 2080?
If "the first true artificial intelligence" (from 2035) wasn't sentient, what did that term mean?
A new chapter begins for the Russian Federation, as it turns it's focus to the High-Tech and Robotics Industries.
Russia's main industry in the future will likely be food. However, this change will occur well before the 2070s, making me wonder why it was trying to cling to an oil industry in the first place.
Others act as airborne solar farms covered in solar sheets with power cables descending back to the surface.
What happened to space-based solar stations (from 2045) and wireless electricity? Unlike anything on Earth, they can operate 24/7 (except for repairs).
To achieve this, Hye spent the first three days as leader quietly ordering the arrests of any high ranking military personnel capable of standing up against her to maintain the old regime. Thanks to her actions, little resistance is made to contradict the supreme leader when she orders all military forces to stand down.
Unless NK itself has changed significantly, I doubt this would really work. Who exactly is going to obey her orders and arrest their own superiors? In reality, she'd probably find herself arrested and possibly executed, while a military dictator would grab power, starting a new dynasty. It's quite likely that the North Korean dictatorship will fall in this century, but it'll either be a gradual thing, with more modernization, democracy, and individual rights creeping in decade by decade, or it'll collapse due to international pressure (say, if China decides to stop propping them up, which is likely as China are apparently friends with the US by the 2050s).
This period shows immense progress in aerospace evolution. A global effort is taken to begin construction of a two kilometer tall international space station, dubbed Unity Space Station. Unity Station will operate in a geosynchronous orbit 14,000 kilometers off the surface.
According to Wikipedia, geostationary orbit (where a space elevator would likely reach) is actually more than twice that, at about 36,000 kilometers.
The International Space Agency is formed and based in Nairobi, and many private space companies create large facilities thereby adding to Nairobi's economic prosperity. In light of this, Nairobi becomes the official capital of the African Confederation, and Africa becomes much more closely bound by this national prestige.
This might be a more reasonable time to start an African Federation, as Kenya now has a huge space sector and other African countries will want in.
This process still takes time. To reach the asteroid belt even with the newest propulsion systems still takes 8-10 months to make a two way trip to and from the asteroid field. Even with dozens of corporate mining vessels now in operation in space, the progress is slow. For now the majority of minerals will be mined from Earth.
Near-earth asteroids, man! They're much, much closer, a few weeks' journey at most.
As hoped, the sublimation of dry ice in Mars' South Pole is enough to bring the atmospheric pressure at the planet surface's average altitude up to about 30 kilopascals, making the air pressure slightly thinner than at Mount Everest's summit. This means bulky pressurized space suits won't be necessary on the surface from this point on. However, obviously the air still isn't breathable yet and it's extremely cold, so thinner environment suits that still maintain oxygen and insulate heat will be necessary, but it will make moving around on the surface far easier.
Hmm, so terraforming is actually humming along really smoothly and quickly, then. It'd be interesting if they tried to terraform some more planets/worlds, for instance Venus, Luna, and possibly one or two moons in the outer Solar System. Not to mention nearby exoplanets such as Kapteyn b, Wolf 1061c, Gliese 832 c, and Gliese 682 c. You could explore how terraforming methods improve over the centuries. Perhaps by the 2500s, they use self-replicating nanobot swarms to generate or eat away planetary atmospheres, convert unwelcome gases into welcome ones, and generate greenhouse gases or cooling gases (like sulfur dioxide) as appropriate. Such terraforming could be completed in mere decades, not centuries, and would be relatively cheap too!
This would allow humans to stay relatively close to home at first, so that it'd be possible to keep humanity together with only sub-light travel in case of an emergency. (What if PRAXIS wants to divide up humanity so that we'd be easy pickings?) This is also how interstellar colonization would probably go in real life for the first few hundred years (until wormholes and later warp drives are developed). There's another reason, though. Remember what I said last post about it being very unwise to trust the PRAXIS completely? Well, my idea would be good insurance. If you don't fully trust the PRAXIS, it stands to reason to have a few colonies that Daedalus doesn't know about (and it presumably won't expect humans to head to Kapteyn b, Wolf 1061c, or any of the others, since it doesn't have them on its star maps).
PS: Another thing that would be smart to do is to transfer Daedalus from the PRAXIS to our own computers (without an internet connection, of course). We could tell him it's for safekeeping, but it'd be for humanity's own safety. This way we can control what information he gets and shut him down if things get truly dicey. Of course, it does without saying that you don't blindly trust an AI at all, what with the AI-box thing and all that.
Because the ICLS rail runs continuously through the incremental stations, technically a ICLS vehicle could run from Rio de Janeiro to Beijing in less than 4 hours, though it would need to decelerate significantly while traveling through stations since those areas are not void of air, and the air resistance at hypersonic speeds could cause collateral damage to both the vehicle and the surrounding station.
How does that work? Assuming that it's all one continuous tube, what keeps the air from spreading throughout the whole tunnel? And if there are doors or something, wouldn't the atmosphere just fly out into the rest of the tube as soon as the doors open? What makes sense is to have each vactrain line be a vacuum throughout. The trains would of course stop at stations, because that's the point of stations, but they'd essentially "dock" with a door on the edge of the tube, and there'd be an airtight tunnel running from the train to the station.
One last thing, all the way from the other end of the timeline.
With major improvements in cell regeneration - along with the optional use of cybernetics - human life expectancy is now about 180:M and 183:F with the upper limit at about 225, more than doubling the average life expectancy of humans of 2100 C.E. levels.
I know you talked about it above, but I still don't get why cybernetics are taking off in the 27th century instead of the 21st. They are likely to be even more effective at boosting strength, speed, toughness, and intelligence than mere bio-augmentation (some would say far more effective). There's only so much you can improve upon a squishy carbon body. They aren't going to make you look inhuman either (unless you want to). Medical nanobots in the blood don't have any effect on outward appearance, nor do inorganic organs with vastly more efficiency and power than "squishy" ones. Even things like artificial limbs can easily be coated in lifelike artificial skin if one wishes to look like flesh-and-blood on the outside. But who cares about looking flesh and blood when you have that kind of physical and mental power? It's surprising that even the military isn't making use of cybernetics; as I said, you're less likely to be physically destroyed if you're not entirely flesh-and-blood.
Some people, like Will and Yuli Ban, believe that transhumanism can confer demigod-like powers. I don't see that happening for several thousand years--like organic compounds, even metal/plastic/ceramics/nanotech have limits. But these limits are bound to be higher than squishy stuff.
Let's talk about life expectancy too. Even from my conservative standpoint, by 2600 the life expectancy for humans will somewhere between two and three times that. Like I said, cybernetics. They're more powerful than you give them credit for. By the 27th century, it'll probably be a question of 'How long can you keep putting stuff in your brain before it runs out of memory space and crashes?' I'll acknowledge that I'm not a qualified expert in such matters, but if you ask the qualified experts (futurists and scientists), they'll give you even higher numbers. Remember when I said people will probably live two to three times longer than you think they will? If you ask people like Will Fox, Ray Kurzweil, and Michio Kaku, they'll probably give you numbers between ten and a hundred times higher than what you have. That will be their low estimate; their high estimate will be: