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#5501
Jessica

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Elon Musk Thinks the First Orbital Flight of Starship Will Be in 2021
Brian Wang | September 7, 2020
spacexstarship-730x430.jpg

Elon Musk had a phone interview for the Human to Mars Conference. He mentioned that there will be improvements for the Super Heavy Starship.

SpaceX is spending $5 billion on the Super Heavy Starship development program. NASA is providing $100-150 million of support for a lunar version of Starship.

 

https://www.nextbigf...be-in-2021.html



#5502
Jessica

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"Stunned" Scientists Discover Possible Signs Of Alien Life On Venus | Zero Hedge
 

 

Astronomers have discovered potential signs of life on Venus, after identifying a gas called phosphine - a phosphorous molecule with three hydrogen atoms attached produced by bacteria which thrives in oxygen-starved environments, such as Venus's inhospitable atmosphere. It is notably toxic to humans.

The surface of Venus captured by a Soviet Venera probe, 1982.
The researchers did not discover actual life forms, but noted that on Earth phosphine is produced by bacteria thriving in oxygen-starved environments. The international scientific team first spotted the phosphine using the James Clerk Maxwell Telescope in Hawaii and confirmed it using the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) radio telescope in Chile. -Reuters

"I was very surprised - stunned, in fact," said lead author of the research, Jane Greaves, of Cardiff University in Wales. The detection of phosphine is considered a "biosignature" - indirect signs of life which scientists have been using probes and telescopes to search for.

"With what we currently know of Venus, the most plausible explanation for phosphine, as fantastical as it might sound, is life," said MIT molecular astrophysicist and study co-author Clara Sousa-Silva, according to Reuters. That said, Sousa-Silva cautioned against jumping to 'alien life' as a primary conclusion..........

 



#5503
Yuli Ban

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Astronomer here!  Here is what is going on!
 
For many years, astronomers have speculated that the most likely way to find evidence of extraterrestrial life is via biosignatures, which are basically substances that provide evidence of life.  Probably the most famous example of this would be oxygen- it rapidly oxidizes in just a few thousand years, so to have large quantities of oxygen in an atmosphere you need something to constantly be putting it there (in Earth's case, from trees).  Another one that's been suggested as a great biosignature is phosphine- a gas we can only make on Earth in the lab, or via organic matter decomposing (typically in a water-rich environment, which Venus is not).  So, to be abundantly clear, the argument here is to the best of our knowledge you should only get this concentration of phosphine if there is life.
 
What did this group discover?  Is the signal legit? These scientists basically pointed a submillimeter radio telescope towards Venus to look for a signature of phosphine, which was not even a very technologically advanced radio telescope for this sort of thing, but they just wanted to get a good benchmark for future observations.  And... they found a phosphine signature.  They then pointed another, better radio telescope at it (ALMA- hands down best in the world for this kind of observation) and measured this signal even better.  I am a radio astronomer myself, and looking at the paper, I have no reason to think this is not the signature from phosphine they say it is.  They spend a lot of time estimating other contaminants they might be picking up, such as sulfur dioxide, but honestly those are really small compared to the phosphine signal.  There's also a lot on the instrumentation, but they do seem to understand and have considered all possible effects there.
 
Can this phosphine be created by non-life? The authors also basically spend half the paper going through allllll the different possible ways to get phosphine in the atmosphere of Venus.  If you go check "extended data Figure 10" in the paper they go through all of the options, from potential volcanic activity to being brought in from meteorites to lightning... and all those methods are either impossible in this case, or would not produce you the concentration levels needed to explain the signature by several orders of magnitude (like, literally a million times too little).  As I said, these guys were very thorough, and brought on a lot of experts in other fields to do this legwork to rule options out!  And the only thing they have not been able to rule out so far is the most fantastic option. :) The point is, either we don’t get something basic about rocky planets, or life is putting this up there.
 
(Mind, the way science goes I am sure by end of the week someone will have thought up an idea on how to explain phosphine in Venus's atmosphere.  Whether that idea is a good one remains to be seen.)
 
To give one example, It should be noted at this point that phosphine has apparently been detected in comets- specifically, it’s thought to be behind in the comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko by the Rosetta mission- paper link.  Comets have long been known to have a ton of organic compounds and are water rich- some suggest life on Earth was seeded by comets a long time ago- but it’s also present in the coma of comets as they are near the sun, which are very different conditions than the Venusian atmosphere. (It’s basically water ice sublimating as it warms up in a comet, so an active process is occurring in a water-rich environment to create phosphine.) However, the amounts created are nowhere near what is needed for the amounts of phosphine seen in Venus, we do not have water anywhere near the levels on Venus to make these amounts of phosphine, and we have detailed radar mapping to show us there was no recent cometary impact of Venus.  As such, it appears highly unlikely that what puts phospine into Venus’s atmosphere is the same as what puts it into a comet’s coma.  Research into this also indicates that, surprise surprise, cometary environments are very different than rocky ones, and only life can put it in the atmosphere of a rocky planet.
 
How can life exist on Venus?  I thought it was a hell hole! The surface of Venus is indeed not a nice place to live- a runaway greenhouse effect means the surface is hot enough to melt lead, it rains sulfuric acid, and the Russian probes that landed there in didn't last more than a few hours. (No one has bothered since the 1980s.) However, if you go about 50 km up Venus's atmosphere is the most Earth-like there is in the Solar System, and this is where this signal is located. What's more, unlike the crushing pressure and hot temperatures on the surface, you have the same atmospheric pressure as on Earth, temps varying from 0-50 C, and pretty similar gravity to here.  People have suggested we could even build cloud cities there. And this is the region this biosignature is coming from- not the surface, but tens of km up in the pretty darn nice area to float around in.
 
Plus, honestly, you know what I’m happy about that will come out of this?  More space exploration of Venus!  It is a fascinating planet that is criminally under-studied despite arguably some of the most interesting geology and atmosphere there is that we know of. (My favorite- Venus’s day is longer than its year, and it rotates “backwards” compared to all the other planets.  But we think that’s not because of the way it formed, but because some gigantic planet-sized object hit it in the early days and basically flipped it upside down and slowed its spin.  Isn’t that so cool?!) But we just wrote it off because the surface is really tough with old Soviet technology, and NASA hasn’t even sent a dedicated mission in over 30 years despite it being literally the closest planet to us*.  I imagine that is going to change *fast and I am really excited for it- bring on the Venus drones!
 
So, aliens? I mean, personally if you're asking my opinion as a scientist... I think I will always remember this discovery as the first step in learning how common life is in the universe. :) To be clear, the "problem" with a biosignature is it does not tell you what is putting that phosphine into the Venusian atmosphere- something microbial seems a good bet (we have great radar mapping of Venus and there are def no cloud cities or large artificial structures), but as to what, your guess is as good as mine.  We do know that billions of microbes live high up in the Earth's atmosphere, feeding as they pass through clouds and found as high as 10km up.  So I see no reason the same can't be happening on Venus! (It would be life still pretty darn ok with sulfuric acid clouds everywhere, mind, but we have extremophiles on Earth in crazy environments too so I can’t think of a good reason why it’s *impossible*).
 
If you want to know where the smoking gun is, well here's the thing... Hollywood has well trained you to think otherwise, but I have always argued that discovering life elsewhere in the universe was going to be like discovering water on Mars.  Where, as you might recall, first there were some signatures that there was water on Mars but that wasn't conclusive on its own that it existed, then a little more evidence came in, and some more... and finally today, everyone knows there is water on Mars.  There was no reason to think the discovery of life wouldn't play out the same, because that's how science operates. (This is also why I always thought people were far too simplistic in assuming we would all just drop everything and unite as one just because life was discovered elsewhere- there'd be no smoking gun, and we'd all do what we all are doing now, get on social media to chat about it.) But put it this way- today we have taken a really big first step.  And I think it is so amazing that this was first discovered not only next door, but on a planet not really thought of as great for life- it shows there's a good chance life in some for is ubiquitous!  And I for one cannot wait until we can get a drone of some sort into the Venusian atmosphere to measure this better- provided, of course, we can do it in a way that ensures our own microbes don't hitch a ride.
 
TL;DR- if you count microbes, which I do, we are (probably) not alone. :D
 
Edit: There will be a Reddit AMA Wednesday at noon EDT from the team!  Not clear to me yet what subreddit it will be in- if you know, let me know so I can properly advertise it here.

And remember my friend, future events such as these will affect you in the future.


#5504
wjfox

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Yeah. One of 2020's highlights, for sure.



#5505
Yuli Ban

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NASA mulls possible mission to Venus after recent discovery of possible life

NASA is considering approving by next April up to two planetary science missions from four proposals under review, including one to Venus that scientists involved in the project said could help determine whether or not that planet harbors life.
 
An international research team on Monday described evidence of potential microbes residing in the harshly acidic Venusian clouds: traces of phosphine, a gas that on Earth is produced by bacteria inhabiting oxygen-free environments. It provided strong potential evidence of life beyond Earth.
 
The U.S. space agency in February shortlisted four proposed missions that are now being reviewed by a NASA panel, two of which would involve robotic probes to Venus. One of those, called DAVINCI+, would send a probe into the Venusian atmosphere.


And remember my friend, future events such as these will affect you in the future.


#5506
Yuli Ban

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Jaredlong

It's crazy how conclusive the phosphine data is, too. Scientists use a sigma value to denote how clear data results are, usually you need a sigma 3 before anyone will take your data seriously, the phosphine report was sigma 15.

 
gneiman

My understanding of the phosphine study is that they identified how much phosphine was present, then determined every possible way to create that much phosphine (besides life), and then determined why those alternatives were impossible.


Phormicidae

Basically we are looking at either a groundbreaking change in our knowledge of chemistry, which is cool in and of itself... or we discover alien life. Jesus, gives me chills just typing it.


And remember my friend, future events such as these will affect you in the future.


#5507
wjfox

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China is quietly preparing for November launch of the Chang’e-5 lunar sample return mission

by Andrew Jones — September 17, 2020

China has initiated preparations to launch Chang’e-5, a mission seeking to collect and return the first lunar samples since the 1970s.

Chang’e-5 aims to collect and return around two kilograms of lunar samples and was earlier slated for launch before the end of 2020. Ship tracking and satellite data now indicate that China is readying for launch in late November.

Specialized cargo ships Yuanwang-21 and -22 are understood to have collected Long March 5 components from the northern port city of Tianjin, the point of manufacture, and are currently transporting them to Qinglan, Hainan island. The components will then be delivered by road to Wenchang Satellite Launch Center.

Yuanwang-21 and 22 in May transported the Long March 5 rocket used to launch the Tianwen-1 Mars mission in late July from Tianjin to Hainan.

China’s four previous Long March 5 launches took around 60 days to go from delivery to Wenchang to liftoff. The Yuanwang ships are due to reach Qinlan September 19, indicating launch is now likely in the last ten days of November.

https://spacenews.co...return-mission/

 

 

SkR8Kh7.jpg



#5508
caltrek

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How We Will Verify Phosphine on Venus

 

https://skyandtelesc...rify-phosphine/

 

Extract:

(Sky & Telescope) The recent detection of phosphine on Venus has scientists excitedly buzzing about the possibility that life might exist on Earth's sister planet. But the detection demands confirmation on two levels. Chemistry labs across the globe are already investigating possible inorganic production routes, to see if anything besides life could account for the molecule’s presence in the atmosphere. The observation itself also requires independent verification. But there are considerable challenges to detecting phosphine’s other chemical fingerprints here on Earth.

 

The solution may come from space.

 

For the past six months, Clara Sousa-Silva (MIT), the team’s quantum chemist, has been attempting to obtain observations on various ground-based instruments. But COVID-19 kept getting in the way.

 

…A direct observation made within the atmosphere would be ideal, as the signal could be amplified, and multiple wavelengths at which the molecule absorbs light could be identified. There are several late-stage proposals already in the works that might be able to achieve this. Two of NASA's four Discovery Program finalists, DAVINCI+ and VERITAS, propose to send missions to Venus as early as 2026.

 

VERITAS is a surface geology and geophysics mission. The satellite’s instruments will have a high spatial resolution, but a moderate spectral resolution; probably not good enough to see phosphine. DAVINCI+ is an entry probe which would measure the atmosphere’s composition while slowly floating down to the surface.


The principles of justice define an appropriate path between dogmatism and intolerance on the one side, and a reductionism which regards religion and morality as mere preferences on the other.   - John Rawls


#5509
Jessica

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Back to Venus: Upstart company wants to beat NASA in search for life

by Ivan Couronne

Can a small American aerospace company get to Venus before NASA returns to our superheated planetary neighbor?

That's what Peter Beck, the CEO of Rocket Lab, is hoping as he sets his sights on launching a low-cost probe in 2023.

Over the past decade his company has become very good at putting satellites in to orbit—and his dream of taking the next step, an interplanetary mission, has received a shot of adrenaline recently with the surprising discovery of a gas linked to living organisms in Venus's corrosive, sulfuric atmosphere.

"What we're looking for on Mars is signs of previous life," Beck explains.

"Whereas Venus, it's signs of potential life now."

With its hellish landscape, Venus has been largely neglected by the major space agencies since the 1980s in favor of the Solar System's more distant bodies.

 

https://phys.org/new...-nasa-life.html



#5510
Yuli Ban

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Multiple 'water bodies' found under surface of Mars

Several liquid bodies have been found under the south pole of Mars, according to a major new study.

The findings give extra credence to previous research that suggested there could be a large saltwater lake underneath the Martian surface, the researchers claim – and also led to them discovering a number of other wet areas.


The findings could be key in the search for alien life on the planet, the researchers note, given life as we know it requires liquid water to survive.


They will also be key to “planetary protection” work that ensures that humanity doesn’t contaminate other planets with life from Earth during missions to explore them.

The researchers call for future work to better examine Mars, its chemistry – and whether there might be any traces of what they call “astrobiological activity”, or alien life.


And here comes Mars for a counterattack. 

Venus and Mars are currently duking it out for title of "most exciting place in the solar system" it seems


And remember my friend, future events such as these will affect you in the future.


#5511
caltrek

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Hmmmm.....maybe we should carry on this discussion to: https://www.futureti...et-speculation/

 

What corporations will do better?

 

Those that bet on exploring Mars, or those that bet on sending probes to Venus?

 

Or, we can just continue the discussion here.  ;)


The principles of justice define an appropriate path between dogmatism and intolerance on the one side, and a reductionism which regards religion and morality as mere preferences on the other.   - John Rawls


#5512
Jessica

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On Mars, 4 supersalty lakes may be hiding under the south pole ice cap

By Charles Q. Choi

Remnants of water once found on the surface of Mars may be hidden in a handful of small lakes below the Red Planet's south pole, and more could exist, according to new research.

For decades, researchers have suspected that water lurks below the polar icecaps of Mars, just as it does here on Earth. In 2018, scientists detected evidence for such a reservoir on the Red Planet — signs of a lake about 12 miles (19 kilometers) across and hidden below about a mile (1.5 km) of ice at the south pole of Mars.

At the time, the researchers said that studying this underground pool of water could yield insights on the past and present chances for life on Mars. However, scientists had many more questions than answers about the origin, composition and longevity of this lake and its water.

 

https://www.space.co...ubsurface-lakes


#5513
Raklian

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Hmmmm.....maybe we should carry on this discussion to: https://www.futureti...et-speculation/

 

What corporations will do better?

 

Those that bet on exploring Mars, or those that bet on sending probes to Venus?

 

Or, we can just continue the discussion here.  ;)

 

Perhaps SpaceX can hedge its bets by sending Starships to both planets, not to mention few other bodies in the solar system as well. It has a plan to produce hundreds of those Starships.


What are you without the sum of your parts?

#5514
caltrek

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Nobel Prize-winning Efforts Show Stars Orbiting the Black Hole at the Center of Our Galaxy

 

https://www.vox.com/...-genzel-penrose

 

Introduction:

(Vox) Scientists can’t see the supermassive black hole, called Sagittarius A*, at the center of our Milky Way galaxy. But they can sense the enormous gravitational power it has on the stars around it. Stars, which astronomers can see, orbit the black hole at staggering speeds.

 

See for yourself (by clicking on the article linked above the quote box). This video includes 16 years of observations from the European Southern Observatory. This isn’t an animation — it’s real images of stars sped up by a factor of 32 million. Watch them dance around a mysterious blank center.

 

And here’s a cleaner, illustrated version of similar observations, from the Keck Observatory in Hawaii (which you can also view by clicking onto the linked article. See also below for a different illustration).

 

On Tuesday, Andrea Ghez, an astronomer at UCLA, and Reinhard Genzel, of the Max Planck Institute for Extraterrestrial Physics in Germany and UC Berkeley, shared half of the Nobel Prize in physics for leading teams who made these extraordinary observations captured over three decades. (Ghez made them at the Keck Observatory, and Genzel led the European effort.) Ghez is now the fourth woman to have won the Nobel Prize in physics.

 

“Stretching the limits of technology, [Ghez and Genzel] refined new techniques to compensate for distortions caused by the Earth’s atmosphere, building unique instruments and committing themselves to long-term research,” the Nobel Committee writes. “Their pioneering work has given us the most convincing evidence yet of a supermassive black hole at the centre of the Milky Way.”

eso1825d.0.jpg

An illustration depicting the orbits of the stars that encircle the supermassive black hole at the center of our galaxy.

 ESO/L. Calçada/spaceengine.org


The principles of justice define an appropriate path between dogmatism and intolerance on the one side, and a reductionism which regards religion and morality as mere preferences on the other.   - John Rawls


#5515
caltrek

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Witness The Very Last Scream of Light From a Star Devoured by a Black Hole

 

https://www.sciencea...by-a-black-hole

 

Introduction:

(Science Alert) From the heart of a galaxy 215 million light-years away, a brilliant flash of light flared into the void of space - the last scream of light from a dying star as it veered too close and was pulled apart by a supermassive black hole.

 

It's the closest such death of a star we've ever observed, offering unprecedented insight into the violent cosmic process.

 

Although catching a stellar death-by-black-hole is uncommon, astronomers have observed enough by now to figure out the broad strokes of how it happens. When a star ventures too close, the immense tidal force of the black hole - the product of its gravitational field - first stretches and then pulls the star so hard that it's torn apart.

 

This tidal disruption event (TDE) releases a brilliant flare of light before the debris of the disintegrated star disappears beyond the black hole's event horizon. But that flare of light is often at least partially obscured by a cloud of dust, which makes studying the finer details difficult.

tde_1024.jpg

Artist's impression of a tidal disruption event.

(ESO/M. Kornmesser)


The principles of justice define an appropriate path between dogmatism and intolerance on the one side, and a reductionism which regards religion and morality as mere preferences on the other.   - John Rawls


#5516
Jessica

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Elon Musk Targets Orbital SpaceX Starship in 2021 and Unmanned Mars in 2024
Brian Wang | October 17, 2020

Elon Musk spoke for nearly an hour at the 2020 Mars Society Event. Elon said that he was 80-90% confident that the SpaceX Starship would reach orbit in 2021.

Elon was interviewed by Robert Zubrin.

Elon wants to make a city on Mars self-sustaining to offset the risks of a disaster on Earth.

Confidently getting one million tons to Mars needs 5 million tons to low earth orbit. This requires fully reusable rockets.

If we someone tried to make an expendable airplane or car then you would be laughed out of the room. Those would be vehicles for single once and one way and then losing the vehicle.

If someone suggested an expendable horse. People would laugh at you and think you were mentally ill.

Making a fully reusable rocket work would be to start with an expendable rocket that would get 4% of the mass as orbital payload. Half of the payload launch capacity would be sacrificed for full reusability.

 



#5517
Jessica

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Airbus to build spacecraft that will return first Mars samples to Earth
October 17, 2020
 

ESA has awarded Airbus a €491 million (US$522 million) contract to design and build the Earth Return Orbiter, which will return the first samples collected from the Red Planet by NASA's Perseverance rover to Earth.

Telescopes have been observing Mars since the days of Galileo and spacecraft have been landing successfully on it since the 1970s, but, aside from a handful of ancient meteorites, nothing from the Red Planet has ever been brought to Earth for study.

This is a problem because, despite becoming increasingly sophisticated, there are limits to what robotic landers and rovers can do. If uncontaminated samples of Martian rock and soil could be returned to Earth, scientists could conduct a much larger variety of tests much more quickly to answer questions like whether life could or once did exist on Mars. In addition, some of the samples could also be kept in anticipation of the development of new investigation methods.

 

https://newatlas.com...-sample-return/



#5518
caltrek

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NASA Mission to Return Sample From Asteroid to Help Reveal the Solar System’s Secrets

 

https://www.nature.c...586-020-02910-4

 

Introduction:

(Nature) NASA is about to grab its first-ever taste of an asteroid. On 20 October, some 334 million kilometres from Earth, the agency’s OSIRIS-REx spacecraft will approach a dark-coloured, diamond-shaped asteroid named Bennu, with the aim of touching its surface for a few seconds — long enough to hoover up a collection of dust and pebbles. If successful, the spacecraft will then fly this carbon-rich rubble back to Earth, where scientists can probe it for clues to the history of the Solar System.

 

The journey to Bennu’s surface won’t be easy. The spacecraft will have to navigate its way past a towering boulder nicknamed Mount Doom, then onto a sampling area no larger than a few car-parking spaces. “We may not be successful on our first attempt,” says Dante Lauretta, the mission’s principal investigator and a planetary scientist at the University of Arizona in Tucson. But if it does work, he says, “I hope the world looks at this as a piece of good news — something we can be proud of with all the insanity that’s going on this year.”

 

There and back again

 

Launched in 2016, the US$800-million OSIRIS-REx is NASA’s first asteroid-sampling mission. It follows two missions from the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA) that have scooped dust off the surface of asteroids — including some retrieved last year that is currently on its way back to Earth for analysis. Before JAXA’s missions, scientists learnt about asteroids’ contents mainly by studying meteorites that had fallen to Earth — and those can be contaminated as they travel through the atmosphere and hit the planet.

 

Scooping a sample directly off an asteroid offers a pristine glimpse at rocks left over from the formation of the Solar System more than 4.5 billion years ago. Each asteroid has its own story to tell about how it formed and evolved over time; Bennu is particularly alluring because it might contain material that is rich in organic compounds that are found throughout the Solar System, including in life on Earth.

d41586-020-02910-4_18482688.jpg

A view of Nightingale, the chosen sampling site for OSIRIS-REx, from 250 metres above Bennu's surface.

Credit: NASA/Goddard/University of Arizona


The principles of justice define an appropriate path between dogmatism and intolerance on the one side, and a reductionism which regards religion and morality as mere preferences on the other.   - John Rawls


#5519
caltrek

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Here is an update to the previous article.

 

Osiris-REX "Tags" Bennu

 

https://skyandtelesc...stunning-views/

 

Extract:

(Sky & Telescope) After more than a year and a half of exploration and mapping from afar, NASA’s Origins, Spectral Interpretation, Resource Identification, Security, Regolith Explorer (Osiris-REX) spacecraft descended to the surface of asteroid 101955 Bennu, extended its TAGSAM (Touch and Go Sampling) arm, and — for six seconds — touched the surface of the asteroid.

 

…The event occurred 200 million miles (321 million kilometers) from Earth on Tuesday, October 20th, a few minutes ahead of schedule. The team received confirmation of the TAG (Touch and Go) maneuver via the worldwide Deep Space Network at 6:08 p.m. EDT (22:08 Universal Time).

 

…The goal is to collect a minimum of 6o grams (2.1 ounces) of regolith, about the weight of an alkaline C-battery. The spin analysis test is accurate to within about 20 grams: if the final measurement is 80 grams, the team will have 90% confidence that the target mass was achieved, and no further sampling is needed.

 

If the mission hasn't collected enough, the plan is to sample the secondary Osprey site on January 4, 2021. Osiris-REX cannot return to Nightingale, as the spacecraft has already disturbed the site and could have potentially contaminated the samples with its thrusters.

 

Osiris-REX has enough nitrogen for three sampling attempts. The gravity field of the half-kilometer asteroid is so feeble that it takes Osiris-REX weeks to get back into orbit for another attempt if needed.


The principles of justice define an appropriate path between dogmatism and intolerance on the one side, and a reductionism which regards religion and morality as mere preferences on the other.   - John Rawls


#5520
caltrek

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New research shows that the recently-discovered closest black hole to Earth might not be a black hole after all but a binary star

 

https://skyandtelesc...rby-black-hole/

 

Extract:

 (Sky & Telescope) A few months ago, scientists announced the indirect detection of the nearest black hole to Earth. But another team is now suggesting a different explanation for this stellar puzzle.

 

…In May 2020, scientists announced an answer to the puzzle: HR 6819 must actually be a triple system. The B3 III star, they argued, is orbiting a black hole (which is why we don’t see evidence of it in the spectra), and the Be star is a distant tertiary companion, orbiting too slowly to have detectable motion.

 

…In a new study, Georgia State University scientists Douglas Gies and Luqian Wang argue that HR 6819 isn’t a triple system after all. Instead, it’s a simple binary, consisting only of the two known components: the Be star, and the B3 III star.

 

…Is the case closed on HR 6819? Far from it! This system continues to challenge our assumptions and gives us the opportunity to practice the process of science as we work to explain our observations.


The principles of justice define an appropriate path between dogmatism and intolerance on the one side, and a reductionism which regards religion and morality as mere preferences on the other.   - John Rawls






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