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The Future of Language

language lexicon vocabulary English linguistics

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#1
caltrek

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Having recently seen the movie Arrival, my interest in linguistics has be re-awakened.  Then there is this story.

 

'Post-truth' Chosen as Oxford Dictionaries Word of Year

 

https://www.yahoo.co...646.html?ref=gs

 

 

LONDON (AP) — Oxford dictionary editors have chosen their word of the year: "post-truth," a term sometimes used to describe the current political climate.

 

Oxford Dictionaries said Wednesday that use of the term rose 2,000 percent between 2015 and 2016, often in discussions of Britain's decision to leave the European Union and the campaign of U.S. President-elect Donald Trump.

 

It's often used in the phrase "post-truth politics" and is defined as belonging to a time in which truth has become irrelevant.

 

Each year, Oxford University Press tracks how the English language is changing and chooses a word that reflects the mood of the year.

 

Runners-up for 2016 include "Brexiteer," an advocate of the U.K. leaving the EU; the extreme conservative movement known as the "alt-right"; and "hygge," the Danish concept of domestic coziness.

 

11350b7f0e904a19b4081c8d87c26803.jpg


The principles of justice define an appropriate path between dogmatism and intolerance on the one side, and a reductionism which regards religion and morality as mere preferences on the other.   - John Rawls


#2
Jakob

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This is on topic, might as well drop it here: http://jbr.me.uk/futurese.html



#3
caltrek

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How the Thanksgiving Turkey Was Named After the Country Turkey

 

http://theweek.com/a...-country-turkey

 

Extract:

 

The English didn't know they were from the Guinea area of west Africa. The trade that brought them to England came through Turkey. So guinea-fowl were called turkey-cocks. When the American birds were brought over, they were at first thought to be the same thing. When the two species were sorted out, the American ones kept the name turkey. The Latin genus name for turkeys also kept the confusion: It's Meleagris, which was a Greek name for guinea-fowl.

 

That accounts for some but not all of the names. The Spanish word for turkey, pavo, comes from the Latin for "peafowl" (yet another kind of bird). Italian's tacchino supposedly imitates the sound the bird makes (I think the Farsi name, booghalamoon, is a more accurate rendition, but I've never owned a live turkey, so what do I know).

 

 German's Truthuhn also does — it comes from Trut and Huhn (nothing to do with truth!), which means "trut hen," apparently from a "trut-trut" noise it makes. Meanwhile, in many Turkic languages (but not Turkish!) it has names that mean "blue bird"; in Japanese and Korean it is called "seven-faced bird" (shichimencho/chilmyeonjo); and the standard Mandarin Chinese name huoji means "fire chicken," though it has a few other Chinese names, my favorite of which is tushouji, "cough-up-a-ribbon chicken," because of the red wattle hanging from its beak.

 

...Oh, by the way, in Mexico, where the turkey came from originally, it's called guajolote. That comes from the Nahuatl (Aztec) name for the bird: huehxolotl. At least someone is giving a geographically appropriate name.

 

So anyway, would you like some cranberry sauce with your huehxolotl?

42-44604707.jpg?itok=bFbAGl9A&resize=126

 

Peter Dawes/Food and Drink Photos/Corbis


The principles of justice define an appropriate path between dogmatism and intolerance on the one side, and a reductionism which regards religion and morality as mere preferences on the other.   - John Rawls


#4
caltrek

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What is in a degree.

 

 

Eratosthenes, librarian at Alexandria around 200 B.C., made a laudable attempt at measuring the degree by making meridian observations of the sun from the bottoms of wells at two distant points (Cyene and Alexandria), supposedly on the same meridian of longitude.  Although he made some sundry errors in his calculations, they canceled each other out so that his answer was very nearly correct; translated into modern nautical miles, Eratosthenes' degree was 59. 5 instead of the correct 60.

 

 

Source:  The European Discovery of America - The Northern Voyages, page 7, Samuel Eliot Morison (1971 edition).


The principles of justice define an appropriate path between dogmatism and intolerance on the one side, and a reductionism which regards religion and morality as mere preferences on the other.   - John Rawls


#5
caltrek

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Dictionary.com's Word of the Year is 'Xenophobia'

 

https://www.yahoo.co...774.html?ref=gs

 

Extract:

 

NEW YORK (AP) — You might have thought about it, heard it. A lot. You might have even felt it: Dictionary.com's word of the year is "xenophobia."

 

While it's difficult to get at exactly why people look up words in dictionaries, online or on paper, it's clear that in contentious 2016, fear of "otherness" bruised the collective consciousness around the globe.

 

The Brexit vote, police violence against people of color, Syria's refugee crisis, transsexual rights and the U.S. presidential race were among prominent developments that drove debate — and spikes in lookups of the word, said Jane Solomon, one of the dictionary site's lexicographers.

 

The 21-year-old site defines xenophobia as "fear or hatred of foreigners, people from different cultures, or strangers." And it plans to expand its entry to include fear or dislike of "customs, dress and cultures of people with backgrounds different from our own," Solomon said in a recent interview.

 

…The interest was clear June 24, within a period that represents the largest spike in lookups of xenophobia so far this year. That was the day of Brexit, when the UK voted to leave the European Union.

6a178debd91d48a980dc1ce7ba402064.jpg

 

Pro-Brexit demonstrators wave flags outside Parliament in London, Wednesday, Nov. 23, 2016.

 (AP Photo/Kirsty Wigglesworth)


The principles of justice define an appropriate path between dogmatism and intolerance on the one side, and a reductionism which regards religion and morality as mere preferences on the other.   - John Rawls


#6
caltrek

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xenophobia

 

http://www.merriam-w...nary/xenophobia

 

 

 

If you look back to the ancient Greek terms that underlie the word xenophobia, you'll discover that xenophobic individuals are literally "stranger fearing." Xenophobia, that elegant-sounding name for an aversion to persons unfamiliar, ultimately derives from two Greek terms: xenos,which can be translated as either "stranger" or "guest," and phobos, which means either "fear" or "flight." Phobos is the ultimate source of all English -phobia terms, but many of those were actually coined in English or New Latin using the combining form -phobia (which traces back to phobos). Xenophobia itself came to us by way of New Latin and first appeared in print in English in 1903.

The principles of justice define an appropriate path between dogmatism and intolerance on the one side, and a reductionism which regards religion and morality as mere preferences on the other.   - John Rawls


#7
caltrek

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Language Trends Only Last For 14 Years, Researchers Say

 

http://www.naturewor...researchers.htm

 

Introduction:

 

It appears there's more to culture than just "generations" and "millennials." Scientists have discovered that despite "end-of-year" lists and 2016's "post-truth" as Oxford Dictionary's word of the year, certain words just function for 14 years at a time. 

This interesting find came from a study of the University of Manchester, UK and Argentina's National Council for Scientific and Technical Research. 

Researchers Marcelo Montemurro and Damian Zanette analyzed the popularity of 5,630 common nouns over the course of the last three centuries.

According to New Scientist, they wrote a code that lets Google Ngram scan through the words across its database of five million digitized books. They ranked the nouns in order of popularity and tracked the changes from the year 1700 to 2008.

Interestingly, they found out that English words rose and fell out of popularity in cycles of 14 years. This increased with one to two years over the past century. The same trend has been found in other words in French, German, Russian, Italian, and Spanish. Related nouns such as king, queen, and duchess even rose and fell over time.

language-trends-only-last-for-14-years-r

 

Scientists have discovered that despite "end-of-year" lists and 2016's "post-truth" as Oxford Dictionary's word of the year, certain words just function for 14 years at a time. 
(Photo : Photo by Putu Sayoga/Getty Images)


The principles of justice define an appropriate path between dogmatism and intolerance on the one side, and a reductionism which regards religion and morality as mere preferences on the other.   - John Rawls


#8
caltrek

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From 'CRISPR' to 'EpiPen': Dictionary Adds Slew of Scientific Words

 

 

 http://www.livescien...ence-words.html

 

 

Times change, and so do languages. And in order to be useful, dictionaries must also be tweaked every now and then. The lexicographers at Merriam-Webster announced today (Feb. 7) that they have added more than 1,000 new words to the dictionary, including many that are related to science, technology and medicine....

 

The science-related additions include:

 

CRISPR: A gene-editing technique that has been widely adopted in just the last few years. The acronym is short for "clustered regularly-interspaced short palindromic repeats."

 

…EpiPen: A brand name of an epinephrine autoinjector, which is used to treat severe allergic reactions.

 

microbiome: A collection of microorganisms, such as those living in the human gut, or their genomes.

 (See article for additional examples)


The principles of justice define an appropriate path between dogmatism and intolerance on the one side, and a reductionism which regards religion and morality as mere preferences on the other.   - John Rawls


#9
caltrek

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New OpenAI Research in Which Agents Develop Their Own Language.

 

https://blog.openai....to-communicate/

 

 

Our hypothesis is that true language understanding will come from agents that learn words in combination with how they affect the world, rather than spotting patterns in a huge corpus of text. As a first step, we wanted to see if cooperative agents could develop a simple language amongst themselves.

 

We’ve just released initial results in which we teach AI agents to create language by dropping them into a set of simple worlds, giving them the ability to communicate, and then giving them goals that can be best achieved by communicating with other agents. If they achieve a goal, then they get rewarded. We train them using reinforcement learning and, due to careful experiment design, they develop a shared language to help them achieve their goals. 

 

Our approach yields agents that invent a (simple!) language which is grounded and compositional. Grounded means that words in a language are tied to something directly experienced by a speaker in their environment, for example, a speaker forming an association between the word “tree” and images or experiences of trees. Compositional means that speakers can assemble multiple words into a sentence to represent a specific idea, such as getting another agent to go to a specific location.

 

 multi_agent_comm_1-471605aa1baa2c1459337


The principles of justice define an appropriate path between dogmatism and intolerance on the one side, and a reductionism which regards religion and morality as mere preferences on the other.   - John Rawls


#10
caltrek

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'Valleytronics' Advancement Could Help Extend Moore's Law

 

https://phys.org/news/2017-05-valleytronics-advancement-law.html#jCp

 

Introduction:

 

 

In the world of semiconductor physics, the goal is to devise more efficient and microscopic ways to control and keep track of 0 and 1, the binary codes that all information storage and logic functions in computers are based on.

 

A new field of physics seeking such advancements is called valleytronics, which exploits the electron's "valley degree of freedom" for data storage and logic applications. Simply put, valleys are maxima and minima of electron energies in a crystalline solid. A method to control electrons in different valleys could yield new, super-efficient computer chips.

 

A University at Buffalo team, led by Hao Zeng, PhD, professor in the Department of Physics, worked with scientists around the world to discover a new way to split the energy levels between the valleys in a two-dimensional semiconductor.

 

The work is described in a study published online today (May 1, 2017) in the journal Nature Nanotechnology.

 

The key to Zeng's discovery is the use of a ferromagnetic compound to pull the valleys apart and keep them at different energy levels. This leads to an increase in the separation of valley energies by a factor of 10 more than the one obtained by applying an external magnetic field.


The principles of justice define an appropriate path between dogmatism and intolerance on the one side, and a reductionism which regards religion and morality as mere preferences on the other.   - John Rawls


#11
caltrek

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'Youthquake' named word of the year by Oxford Dictionaries

 

http://www.cnn.com/2...intl/index.html

 

Introduction:

 

(CNN) Oxford Dictionaries has crowned "youthquake" as its word of 2017 in a nod to the unexpected level of youth engagement in this summer's election in the United Kingdom.

An amalgamation of "youth" and "earthquake", the noun is defined as "a significant cultural, political, or social change arising from the actions or influence of young people."
 
The word was coined in the 1960s by then-Vogue editor, Diana Vreeland, to describe upheavals in fashion and music caused by Britain's youth culture.
 
But an almost five-fold resurgence in usage of the word was seen between 2016 and 2017 in a different context -- as a result of surprisingly high youth participation in June's election.
Predictions of a big victory for Theresa May's Conservative Party before the election were based partly on assumptions that most young people wouldn't vote.

The principles of justice define an appropriate path between dogmatism and intolerance on the one side, and a reductionism which regards religion and morality as mere preferences on the other.   - John Rawls


#12
caltrek

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Bombogenesis

 

http://6abc.com/weat...enesis/2855506/

 

 

 

(ABC Action News Philadelphia) You may have seen this week's storm described using the terms "bombogenesis" and "bomb cyclone."

Bombogenesis happens when "a midlatitude cyclone rapidly intensifies, dropping at least 24 millibars over 24 hours," according to NOAA. This extreme and rapid change in pressure forms a very strong storm, a so-called "bomb cyclone."

Bomb Cyclone is not an official term. Meteorologists and scientist use "bombogenesis."

According to AccuWeather, these storms occur most commonly off the east coast and the recipe for it to form is "cold air along the land, warm air over the water."

Bomb cyclones happen almost every winter. This week's storm will make travel nearly impossible in parts of the East Coast.

bombogenesis.jpg

Fourteen of 20 hurricane-force wind events underwent bombogenesis in the North Atlantic during the first two months of 2014. This unusual activity can be seen in wind speed data from the period. In this image, blues indicate areas with wind speeds that are faster than the 30-year historical average (1981-2010).

NOAA


The principles of justice define an appropriate path between dogmatism and intolerance on the one side, and a reductionism which regards religion and morality as mere preferences on the other.   - John Rawls


#13
caltrek

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Yuli Ban, on 14 Jan 2018 - 5:03 PM, said:snapback.png

It's something I've been talking about. We keep expecting utopia or dystopia, but it's looking more like these were examples of creative myopia.

 

The idea of our VR "oases" being infested with anime lolis and meme characters should've been obvious to our post 4chan society, but we still make these mistakes in thinking that we're going to either create transcendental hubs of high philosophy and logic, establish techno-anarchist communes to better ourselves, or recreate Nineteen Eighty-Four. And the truth is, we will do all three because it's not like there aren't places on the Internet used for their intended purposes or being used towards totalitarian ends. But we'll also corrupt these things or at least try to in the silliest ways.

 

I still expect streaking genitalia-enhanced shit-covered robots running through public spaces as soon as the first publically available version is out.

 

Zaphod: 

 

 

 

Maybe we need another word like dystopia and utopia, but to describe a bizarre and nonsensical future dominated by memes. Memetopia or something similar.

The principles of justice define an appropriate path between dogmatism and intolerance on the one side, and a reductionism which regards religion and morality as mere preferences on the other.   - John Rawls


#14
caltrek

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French told not to say 'smartphone' in ongoing battle against English

 

https://www.thelocal...against-english

 

 

Introduction:

 

(The Local - France) French language guardians are attempting to rid France of the word "smartphone" in their ongoing battle against English tech terms. But will "mobile multifonction" really catch on?

 

The guardians of the French language have had their say once again.

 

Their battle against the influx of English words, especially in the realm of technology has long been hard and some would say futile.

 

After banishing the likes of "email", "hashtag" and "dark web", to much hilarity -- and without much success it must be said -- they have now turned their attention to the "smartphone".

 

The body known as the Commission d'enrichissement de la langue française, which works alongside the famously proud and often grouchy Academie Française, is urging French speakers to use the word "mobile multifonction" instead. 

7487dfc6a4717811984d2a6395ce62f1311dc818

AFP


The principles of justice define an appropriate path between dogmatism and intolerance on the one side, and a reductionism which regards religion and morality as mere preferences on the other.   - John Rawls


#15
Yuli Ban

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And remember my friend, future events such as these will affect you in the future.


#16
tomasth

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You all are not seeing anything yet !

 

You all are not = Yain't

 

seeing anything = snything

 

snything yet = snytet

 

Yain't snytet !



#17
caltrek

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LOL @ ur snytet. 


The principles of justice define an appropriate path between dogmatism and intolerance on the one side, and a reductionism which regards religion and morality as mere preferences on the other.   - John Rawls


#18
bgates276

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Hmm, I just clicked on this topic because it was updated today, but the original post caught my eye. I recall hearing that 'post truth' was a topic at this year's Bilderberg meeting:

 

https://www.cnbc.com...n-politics.html

 

It's listed as #11 on the list.

 

It's funny, before I read the article I had assumed that the elites would be creators of this 'post truth'. 

 

And yes Caltrek, I also think linguistics is important. The lexicon and it's semantics, can shape the way we think. It can be used to control people. A perfect example of this was the 'doublespeak' in the book 1984, by George Orwell, where no one knows the truth. To be honest, 'post-truth' sounds a lot like doublespeak. 



#19
caltrek

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@ bgates,

 

Reading Orwell is very cool.

 

"Post-truth" is a play on "post-modern".  Both "postmodern" and "deconstruction" are words that actually did spring from "elites".  They were philosophers that conservatives rightly criticized as "relativistic" in their thinking.  Meaning that they were influenced by the theory of relativity.  

 

Unfortunately, both sides went a little hog-wild with this line of thinking.  Liberals, because they tended to have a secular orientation to the world.

 

Conservatives, because they were interested in ideas that could be used to buttress a belief in God.  Beating up the theory of evolution came into fashion as it could be shrugged off as "just a theory". So conservatives found a weapon that could be used to ignore science - hence "post-truth".  


The principles of justice define an appropriate path between dogmatism and intolerance on the one side, and a reductionism which regards religion and morality as mere preferences on the other.   - John Rawls


#20
caltrek

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Domicology

 

https://domicology.msu.edu/

 

Introduction:

 

(Great Lakes Echo) Constructing, remodeling and demolishing buildings have significant environmental impacts: natural resources are used to build them and large amounts of waste are sent to landfills when they come down.

 

What do you call that?

 

Researchers at Michigan State University are starting to use the word “domicology” to define the study of policies, practices and consequences of what happens to empty buildings.

 

It’s a term that doesn’t exist — yet. But George Berghorn, a self-described domicologist and assistant professor of construction management at Michigan State University, is working hard to make it one.

 

The term has Greek origins. The term domicile refers to buildings, homes and residences, Berghorn said.


The principles of justice define an appropriate path between dogmatism and intolerance on the one side, and a reductionism which regards religion and morality as mere preferences on the other.   - John Rawls






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