I like the far future section and predictions very much but I think it`s very pessimistic the prediction for computers processing power and Moore`s Law for the year 2220. I believe that computers will be more powerful than predicted and ultil the 23rd century many new laws of physics will be discovered and wholly new undreamed technologies will be created that could make computers more powerful.
The prediction says that computers will still continue to generate too much heat. The heat problem could be solved using superconductors to process information. Superconductors would carry energy without any loss and without generating heat besides making computers much faster. Spintronics would also produce little heat as well since the spin of the electrons will be using rather than its charge. Optical computers would not generate any heat at all because photons don`t have electric charge.and also don`t have mass. And unlike electrons photons are bosons which means that an unlimited amount of them can be put in the same space.It`s natural that today computers heat up and become hot become electrons have electric charge and they have to move throughout the chip, so heat is generated and lost in the process.
There are other new fields that could make computers more powerful like valleytronics, plasmonics, spinplasmonics. Evem metamaterials could make computers faster.
Another development is to make a single chip act as both processor and storage. Spintronics could achieve that and the same could be achieved using memristors. A single spintronic or memristor chip cpould handle processing, primary and secondary data storage, making computers smaller, lighter and much faster.
I also think that in the more distant future gamma rays and cosmic rays could make computers even more powerful since they have extremely high frequency. I also think that the spin and electric and magnetic moment of photons could also be used for computing. Bose Einstein condensates along with other new states of matter could also be used for making computers faster.
The most pessimistic is that the predictions says that the average laptop of the year 2220 will perform at most 10-50 flops per second. I don`t even think that computers will look like laptops by then and would look completely futuristic and crazy-like for me. Despite that according to wikipedia that would be the average computing power of a Marioshka Brain. I don`t have notion of such high number since I`m not a engineerer nor a scientist nor what such processing power in every second could do.
Femtotechnology would imply the manipulation of subatomic particles like quarks and gluons. They have interesting properties like variable electrical charge and color charge(gluons are also bosons) besides being extremely small - smaller than a proton, which is itself much smaller than the smallest atom. Could not the processing power predicted be achieved using femtotechnology alone?
Moore's Law is reaching its physical limit
One of the notable technological milestones of the early 23rd century is the perfection of traditional computer substrates, which are now becoming the densest and most efficient allowed by the laws of physics. This has been accomplished by super AI, working to create subatomic matrices at unimaginably tiny scales. Some of the ultra-compact designs now being used incorporate diamondoid-like materials and fractalised structures, with recursive properties for encoding information at levels far below even femtotechnology.
A computing device with a mass of one kilogram (roughly equivalent to a conventional laptop circa 2020) can today perform a maximum of 5.425 × 1050 operations per second.* This is 33 orders of magnitude greater than a state-of-the-art supercomputer of two centuries earlier.**
One of the major problems – which had vexed even the greatest of the super AI minds – was the issue of heat management. In early 21st century terms, generating such a vast amount of computational power would produce the equivalent of a thermonuclear explosion. However, technical considerations for this and other challenges were eventually solved, based on new physics.
By 2220, this form of "computronium" has been largely perfected for mainstream use, although experiments continue with certain exotic forms of matter, attempting to eke out further gains in performance and energy efficiency. Much of the Solar System is being turned into "smart" rocks, with neural networks embedded throughout asteroids and on the surface of moons, for example.
I have another curiosity: WJFOX, why did you removed the mind uploading prediction for the year 2220 and the prediction for advanced genetic modification that could give people surreal and bizarre forms for the same year?