In the long run, we will be able to control the Earth's temperature by controlling how much light reaches it.
1) Our civilization will eventually spread to space, and the space ships, stations and colonies will stop being dependent on Earth for their resources.
2) Solar power would be the most logical energy source for them. That means they would build big solar panel arrays.
3) Because there's no gravity or wind/air, the arrays could be made massive in size while being very thin.
4) Positioning some of the solar arrays between the Earth and Sun would be a win-win if the goal is to cool down the former. It wouldn't cost anyone any money since the solar arrays would have been built anyway.
5) The arrays could maneuver in careful ways to shade specific parts of the planet's surface to achieve desired local effects. For example, hurricanes could be weakened or led away from land by blocking them or certain parts of the ocean surrounding them from getting warming sunlight.
6) Mirrors could also be placed around Earth to warm up specific areas.
You would need a ton of satellites to reflect/absorb a suitable amount of energy coming from the sun, plus they would have to be facing the sun at all times while in orbit.
How about building 'White Cities' where the buildings reflect the suns light, this would raise the albedo of Earth, cooling Earth, but then there is the question of the overwhelming amount of man-made CO2 in the atmosphere that trap the sunlight in our atmosphere.
This would take a far while to dissipate to suitable levels, even when the entire world is using renewable resources as energy.
Paint roofs white is a good way to cool down places that are in the Tropics or Subtropics. It's a bad idea in temperate and cold regions since white prevents the roofs from absorbing the sunlight and passively heating up. The interiors of the structures get colder as a result, forcing their heating systems to work harder, which itself releases more pollutants and waste heat that make global warming worse. Many parts of the world should have black roofs to save energy and cut pollution.