Biology & Medicine News and Discussions

weatheriscool
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Philips recalls ventilators and sleep apnea CPAP machines over cancer concerns
Source: CBS NEWS

BY KATE GIBSON
Philips is recalling breathing devices and ventilators due to foam that might degrade and become toxic, possibly causing cancer, the Dutch medical equipment maker said on Monday.

The recall involves specific Philips Bi-Level Positive Airway Pressure (Bi-Level PAP), Continuous Positive Airway Pressure (CPAP) and mechanical ventilator devices to address potential health risks related to polyester-based polyurethane sound abatement foam that is in the machines, Philips said in a news release.

Foam used to soften the sound made by the machines can deteriorate and project tiny particles and gases that can irritate airways, cause headaches and possibly be toxic or carry cancer risks, according to the company.

No deaths have been reported in connection with the recalled devices.

Read more: https://www.cbsnews.com/news/philips-cp ... ntilators/
weatheriscool
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Brain cell membranes' lipids may play big role in Alzheimer's progression
https://medicalxpress.com/news/2021-06- ... s-big.html
by American Institute of Physics
Alzheimer's disease is predominant in elderly people, but the way age-related changes to lipid composition affect the regulation of biological processes is still not well understood. Links between lipid imbalance and disease have been established, in which lipid changes increase the formation of amyloid plaques, a hallmark of Alzheimer's disease.

This imbalance inspired researchers from Aarhus University in Denmark to explore the role of lipids comprising the cellular membranes of brain cells.

In Biointerphases, the researchers report on the significant role lipids may play in regulating C99, a protein within the amyloid pathway, and disease progression. Lipids have been mostly overlooked from a therapeutic standpoint, likely because their influence in biological function is not yet fully understood.
weatheriscool
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New metal-free hydrogel electrodes flex to fit the body's many shapes, avoiding damage to organs

by Lindsay Brownell, Hansjörg Wyss Institute for Biologically Inspired Engineering
https://phys.org/news/2021-06-metal-fre ... -body.html
Arrays of metal electrodes are often used in medical procedures that require monitoring or delivering electrical impulses in the body, such as brain surgery and epilepsy mapping. However, the metal and plastic materials that comprise them are stiff and inflexible while the body's tissues are soft and malleable. This mismatch limits the places in which electrode arrays can be successfully used, and also requires the application of a large amount of electrical current in order to "jump" the gap between an electrode and its target.

Inspired by the unique physical properties of living human tissues, a team of scientists from Harvard's Wyss Institute and John A. Paulson School of Engineering and Applied Sciences (SEAS) has created flexible, metal-free electrode arrays that snugly conform to the body's myriad shapes, from the deep creases of the brain to the fibrous nerves of the heart. This close embrace allows electrical impulses to be recorded and stimulated with lower required voltages, enables their use in hard-to-reach areas of the body, and minimizes the risk of damage to delicate organs.
weatheriscool
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Tiny cannabis capsules could help treat neurological diseases
https://medicalxpress.com/news/2021-06- ... eases.html
by Lucien Wilkinson, Curtin University
A team of researchers led by Curtin University has discovered a new way to improve the absorption rate of medicinal cannabis when taken orally, which could potentially be used to treat neurological disorders such as Alzheimer's disease, multiple sclerosis and traumatic brain injuries in the future.

Published in the journal PLOS ONE and funded by industry partner Zelira Therapeutics, the researchers were able to create tiny capsules containing cannabinoids which, when taken orally, were absorbed by the body faster and penetrated the brain quicker in mice models with neurological diseases, than when it was delivered in liquid form.

Lead researcher, Associate Professor Ryu Takechi from the Curtin Health Innovation Research Institute (CHIRI) and the School of Population Health at Curtin University, said there has been a growing interest in the use of cannabidiol to treat various neurological diseases, but there are limitations due its poor absorption and sensitivity to light and stomach acid when consumed orally.
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Yuli Ban
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mRNA vaccine yields full protection against malaria in mice
Scientists from the Walter Reed Army Institute of Research and Naval Medical Research Center partnered with researchers at the University of Pennsylvania and Acuitas Therapeutics to develop a novel vaccine based on mRNA technology that protects against malaria in animal models, publishing their findings in npj Vaccines.

In 2019, there were an estimated 229 million cases of malaria and 409,000 deaths globally, creating an extraordinary cost in terms of human morbidity, mortality, economic burden, and regional social stability. Worldwide, Plasmodium falciparum is the parasite species which causes the vast majority of deaths. Those at highest risk of severe disease include pregnant women, children and malaria naïve travelers. Malaria countermeasures development has historically been a priority research area for the Department of Defense as the disease remains a top threat to U.S. military forces deployed to endemic regions.

A safe, effective malaria vaccine has long been an elusive target for scientists. The most advanced malaria vaccine is RTS,S, a first-generation product developed in partnership with WRAIR. RTS,S is based on the circumsporozoite protein of P. falciparum, the most dangerous and widespread species of malaria parasite. While RTS,S is an impactful countermeasure in the fight against malaria, field studies have revealed limited sterile efficacy and duration of protection. The limitations associated with RTS,S and other first-generation malaria vaccines have led scientists to evaluate new platforms and second-generation approaches for malaria vaccines.
And remember my friend, future events such as these will affect you in the future
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Ken_J
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weatheriscool wrote: Tue Jun 15, 2021 7:54 pm Brain cell membranes' lipids may play big role in Alzheimer's progression
https://medicalxpress.com/news/2021-06- ... s-big.html
by American Institute of Physics
Alzheimer's disease is predominant in elderly people, but the way age-related changes to lipid composition affect the regulation of biological processes is still not well understood. Links between lipid imbalance and disease have been established, in which lipid changes increase the formation of amyloid plaques, a hallmark of Alzheimer's disease.

This imbalance inspired researchers from Aarhus University in Denmark to explore the role of lipids comprising the cellular membranes of brain cells.

In Biointerphases, the researchers report on the significant role lipids may play in regulating C99, a protein within the amyloid pathway, and disease progression. Lipids have been mostly overlooked from a therapeutic standpoint, likely because their influence in biological function is not yet fully understood.
see this is why I'm unsure about indefinite lifespans in humans. It doesn't help to change genes or telomeres if the basic structure of the cell bodies in the brain turn to junk. you'd have clean out and replace most of the brain to solve the problem. And last I checked we are our brains, if we break don, drain out and replace brain we are likely to go with it.
weatheriscool
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Ken_J wrote: Fri Jun 18, 2021 9:59 pm
weatheriscool wrote: Tue Jun 15, 2021 7:54 pm Brain cell membranes' lipids may play big role in Alzheimer's progression
https://medicalxpress.com/news/2021-06- ... s-big.html
by American Institute of Physics
Alzheimer's disease is predominant in elderly people, but the way age-related changes to lipid composition affect the regulation of biological processes is still not well understood. Links between lipid imbalance and disease have been established, in which lipid changes increase the formation of amyloid plaques, a hallmark of Alzheimer's disease.

This imbalance inspired researchers from Aarhus University in Denmark to explore the role of lipids comprising the cellular membranes of brain cells.

In Biointerphases, the researchers report on the significant role lipids may play in regulating C99, a protein within the amyloid pathway, and disease progression. Lipids have been mostly overlooked from a therapeutic standpoint, likely because their influence in biological function is not yet fully understood.
see this is why I'm unsure about indefinite lifespans in humans. It doesn't help to change genes or telomeres if the basic structure of the cell bodies in the brain turn to junk. you'd have clean out and replace most of the brain to solve the problem. And last I checked we are our brains, if we break don, drain out and replace brain we are likely to go with it.
We'll have to develop some kind of computer infrastructure that we could download ourselves into as we're 3-d bioprinting a new brain to then redownload into the new brain that is put back into our skull. We'd have to do this every 80-100 years.

Or we could try to develop a hybrid robotic/human brain that could constantly maintain the upkeep.
weatheriscool
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Implantable brain device relieves pain in early study

by NYU Langone Health
https://medicalxpress.com/news/2021-06- ... -pain.html
A computerized brain implant effectively relieves short-term and chronic pain in rodents, a new study finds.

The experiments, conducted by investigators at NYU Grossman School of Medicine, offer what the researchers call a "blueprint" for the development of brain implants to treat pain syndromes and other brain-based disorders, such as anxiety, depression, and panic attacks.

Publishing June 21 in the journal Nature Biomedical Engineering, the study showed that device-implanted rats withdrew their paws 40 percent more slowly from sudden pain compared with times when their device was turned off.
weatheriscool
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Investigational Alzheimer's drug improves biomarkers of the disease

by Washington University School of Medicine
https://medicalxpress.com/news/2021-06- ... sease.html
An investigational Alzheimer's drug reduced molecular markers of disease and curbed neurodegeneration in the brain, without demonstrating evidence of cognitive benefit, in a phase 2/3 clinical trial led by researchers at Washington University School of Medicine in St. Louis through its Dominantly Inherited Alzheimer Network-Trials Unit (DIAN-TU). These results led the trial leaders to offer the drug, known as gantenerumab, to participants as part of an exploratory open-label extension. The researchers continue to monitor changes in measures of Alzheimer's disease in those participants who are receiving the drug.

The DIAN-TU study (ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT01760005), published June 21 in Nature Medicine, evaluated the effects of two investigational drugs—gantenerumab, made by Roche and its U.S. affiliate, Genentech, and solanezumab, made by Eli Lilly and Co.—in people with a rare, inherited, early-onset form of Alzheimer's known as dominantly inherited Alzheimer's disease or autosomal dominant Alzheimer's disease. Such people are born with a mutation that causes Alzheimer's, and experience declines in memory and thinking skills starting as early as their 30s or 40s.
weatheriscool
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Derivative of vitamin A enhances the tumor-killing effectiveness of radiotherapy

by Kristin Rattini, University of Chicago Medical Center
https://medicalxpress.com/news/2021-06- ... erapy.html
Radiotherapy is a crucial component in cancer treatment, used in 50 to 60 percent of patients with cancer. It is traditionally used for localized cancers—such as head and neck, cervical, prostate, lung and brain cancers—with varying degrees of success.

A University of Chicago Medicine Comprehensive Cancer Center researcher-led team has discovered that combining radiotherapy with all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) significantly inhibits the growth of not only locally irradiated tumors, but also distal tumors not treated with radiation. The combination treatment of radiation and ATRA modulates the tumor microenvironment and enhances the effects of radiation on both the local and systemic levels.

"Our group is the first to combine ATRA with radiation to treat solid tumors in animal models," said Ralph Weichselbaum, MD, Daniel K. Ludwig Distinguished Service Professor and chair of Radiation and Cellular Oncology and a senior author of the study, published in the June 11, 2021 issue of Science Immunology.
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