5th December 2013
Water found on multiple exoplanets
The Hubble Space Telescope has found evidence of water in the atmospheres of five distant exoplanets orbiting stars beyond our Solar System.
Using the Hubble Space Telescope, two teams of scientists have detected faint signatures of water in the atmospheres of five distant exoplanets. Atmospheric water on exoplanets has been reported previously – but this new study is the first to conclusively measure the profiles and intensities of these signatures on multiple worlds.
The five planets – WASP-17b, HD209458b, WASP-12b, WASP-19b and XO-1b – orbit stars ranging in distance from 154 to 1,000 light years from Earth. The strengths of their water signatures varied. WASP-17b, a planet with an especially puffed-up atmosphere, and HD209458b had the strongest signals. The signatures for the other three planets, WASP-12b, WASP-19b and XO-1b, are also consistent with water.
"We're very confident that we see a water signature for multiple planets," said Avi Mandell, planetary scientist at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center, and lead author of an Astrophysical Journal paper describing the findings. "This work really opens the door for comparing how much water is present in atmospheres on different kinds of exoplanets – for example, hotter versus cooler ones."
The studies were part of a census of exoplanet atmospheres led by Prof. L. Drake Deming at the University of Maryland. Hubble's Wide Field Camera 3 was used to determine light absorption through the planets' atmospheres. The observations were made in a range of infrared wavelengths where a water signature, if present, would appear. The teams compared shapes and intensity of the absorption profiles, and the consistency of signatures gave them confidence they saw water.
"To actually detect the atmosphere of an exoplanet is extraordinarily difficult. But we were able to pull out a very clear signal, and it is water," said Deming, whose team employed a new technique with longer exposure times, which increased the sensitivity of their measurements.
The water signals were all less pronounced than expected, and the scientists suspect this is because a layer of haze or dust blankets each of the five planets. This haze can reduce the intensity of all signals from the atmosphere in the same way fog can make colours in a photograph appear muted. At the same time, haze alters the profiles of water signals and other important molecules in a distinctive way.
The five planets are "hot Jupiters" – massive worlds that orbit close to their host stars. The researchers were initially surprised that all five appeared to be hazy. But Deming and Mandell noted that other researchers are finding evidence of haze around exoplanets.
"These studies, combined with other Hubble observations, are showing us that there are a surprisingly large number of systems for which the signal of water is either attenuated or completely absent," said Heather Knutson of the California Institute of Technology, a co-author on Deming's paper. "This suggests that cloudy or hazy atmospheres may in fact be rather common for hot Jupiters."
Hubble's high-performance Wide Field Camera 3 is one of only a few capable of analysing the atmospheres of exoplanets many trillions of miles away. These exceptionally challenging studies can be done only if the planets are spotted while they are passing in front of their stars. Researchers can identify the gases in a planet's atmosphere by determining which wavelengths of the star's light are transmitted and which are partially absorbed.
As detection methods improve, astronomers will be able to search the atmospheres of Earth-sized planets. Some of the missions being planned in the future include the CHEOPS satellite (2017), James Webb Telescope (2018), the European Extremely Large Telescope (2022) and the Advanced Technology Large-Aperture Space Telescope (2025-2035).