biggest refugee crisis in world history
flooding in southeast Asia – produced by a combination of rising sea
levels, melting glaciers and extreme weather events – is creating the
biggest refugee crisis in world history. Bangladesh and neighbouring regions are seeing literally tens of millions of men, women and
children displaced from their homes.*
horror is the worst environmental crisis of the 21st century so far. Although
various different countries are affected, the disaster is centred
on Bangladesh with its high population (over 150m) and high density,
situated in the low-lying Ganges River delta. With most of the country
just a few metres above sea level – and with a flat topography – storm
surges are flooding vast areas of land with virtually no hope of recovery.
As well as the physical damage to infrastructure, salt in the ground
means that fields up to 40km from the new coastline are rendered useless
for growing crops.*
are drowned, while others die in the subsequent looting and chaos
that sweeps the nation. With so many refugees attempting to flee the region, conflicts begin to erupt
along the borders with India and Burma. The sheer
scale of this catastrophe makes it difficult to coordinate relief efforts, and relatively speaking, only token assistance can be offered by the UN.
marriage is legal in every US state
to obtain marriage rights and benefits for same-sex couples in the USA
began in the early 1970s. The issue became even more prominent in the
1990s, with Congress' passing of the Defense of Marriage Act.
early 21st century, public support grew considerably. By 2011, same-sex
marriages had been granted by five of the 50 states, the federal district,
and one Indian tribe. By 2015, the number of Americans opposing gay
marriage was being exceeded by those in support.*
continued over the next decade, with a growing majority of states declaring
same-sex marriage bans to be unconstitutional. By the 2020s, even the
southern "Bible Belt" states had begun to overturn the ban,
Mississippi becoming the last to do so.*
elephants are going extinct in the wild
efforts to curtail the ivory trade, vast numbers of elephants continued
to be poached throughout Africa. Their population – which stood at 600,000
in 2009 – declined by nearly 40,000 each year.* They are now on the brink of extinction, with no reported sightings in the wild. Zoos and parks are working to maintain a viable population for future rewilding.
Hampton | Dreamstime.com
cure for the common cold is available for general public use
was previously believed that antibodies – produced by the immune
system – could only attack a virus from outside the cell,
and that once a cell was infected by a virus it was doomed to die.
however, scientists made a revolutionary discovery. It was found that
certain antibodies could "piggyback" on an invading virus
as it entered the cell. Once inside, they would trigger a protein called
TRIM21, pulling the virus into a disposal system and eliminating it.
Artificially boosting the amount of TRIM21 was shown to help this process.
once seemed impossible – a cure for the common cold – was edging towards
a reality. Further research, including animal tests, led to the first
trials on humans in the mid-2010s.
successful in the laboratory, this drug faced the lobbying efforts of
pharmaceuticals, concerned at their sudden loss of profitability. Nevertheless,
it eventually became available to the public.
can be taken in inhaler form and cures colds in under two hours. Workplace
absences are decreased substantially as a result. A number of other
viruses responsible for a range of diseases can also be targeted by
this new approach. They include norovirus, which causes winter vomiting,
and rotavirus, which results in severe diarrhea and kills thousands
of children in developing countries.*
Kaulitzki | Dreamstime.com
of the Square Kilometre Array
view of the universe is greatly expanded with the completion of a major
new observatory.* This radio telescope
has a total collecting area of approximately one kilometre. It operates
over a wide range of frequencies and its size makes it 50 times more
sensitive than any other radio instrument.
advanced processing technology, it can survey the sky more than 10,000
times faster than ever before. With stations extending to a distance
of 3,000 km from a concentrated central core, it continues radio astronomy's
tradition of providing the highest resolution images in all of astronomy.
Image used with permission from Jo Bowler, SKA Program
Development Office, Jodrell Bank Centre for Astrophysics.
99% of near-Earth asteroids have been catalogued
Sentinel is a mission developed by Ball Aerospace for the non-profit B612 Foundation which aims to identify the vast majority of asteroids near Earth. Launched by 2018 and with 6.5 years of operation, it becomes the first privately-funded mission to the inner Solar System. A spacecraft with a 0.5-metre infrared telescope is placed in a Venus-like orbit, facing away from the Sun. This allows it to view the night half of the sky every 20 days – picking up objects that were previously difficult, if not impossible, to see from Earth.** In its first month alone, Sentinel discovers over 20,000 objects, more than double the 10,000* found in the past 30 years. Given the telescopic accuracy, its data also proves useful in future asteroid mining.
The Sentinel Space Telescope in orbit around the Sun. Image courtesy of Ball Aerospace.
first probe to fly into the Sun's outer atmosphere
Probe Plus is a historic mission flying into the Sun's outer atmosphere
(corona) for the first time. The probe travels to within 5.9 million
km (3.6 million miles) of the Sun's surface – just four times the length
of its diameter.
close range, a shield is needed at the front of the spacecraft. This
is made of reinforced carbon-carbon composite, able to withstand temperatures
of 2000°C. At closest approach, Solar Probe Plus hurtles
around the Sun at approximately 450,000 miles per hour; fast enough
to get from Philadelphia to Washington in one second.
primary scientific goals are:
• To determine the structure and dynamics of the magnetic fields at the
sources of solar wind.
• To trace the flow of energy that heats the corona and accelerates the
• To determine what mechanisms accelerate and transport energetic particles.
• To explore dusty plasma near the sun and its influence on solar wind
and energetic particle formation.
closer to the Sun than any previous craft, Solar Probe Plus uses a combination of in situ measurements and 3D imaging to revolutionise
our knowledge of the physics, origin and evolution of the solar wind.*