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2028 timeline contents




Launch of the European ATHENA X-ray observatory

The Advanced Telescope for High ENergy Astrophysics (ATHENA) is a major new X-ray telescope launched by the European Space Agency.** This L-class (Large) project is the second of three missions in the "Cosmic Vision" programme which includes two other spacecraft – the Jupiter Icy Moon Explorer (JUICE) launched in 2022 and a gravitational wave observatory being deployed in 2034.

X-ray observations are crucial for understanding the structure and evolution of stars, galaxies and the Universe as a whole. These images can reveal "hot spots" in the Universe – regions where particles have been energised or raised to very high temperatures by strong magnetic fields, violent explosions, and intense gravitational forces. X-ray sources are also associated with the different phases of stellar evolution such as supernova remnants, neutron stars and black holes.

ATHENA is designed to answer a number of important questions in astrophysics:

• What happens close to a black hole?
• How did supermassive black holes grow?
• How do large-scale structures (i.e. galaxy clusters and superclusters) form?
• What is the connection between these processes?

To address these questions, it can trace orbits close to the event horizon of black holes, measure black hole spin for several hundred active galactic nuclei (AGN), use spectroscopy to characterise the outflows and environments of AGN at their peak activity, look for supermassive black holes out to redshift z = 10, map the bulk motions and turbulence in galaxy clusters, find missing baryons in the cosmic web using background quasars, and observe the process of cosmic feedback where black holes inject energy on galactic and intergalactic scales.

This enables astronomers to understand better the history and evolution of matter and energy – visible and dark – as well as their interplay during the formation of the largest structures in the Universe. Closer to home, observations constrain the equation of state in neutron stars, black hole spin demographics, when and how elements were created and dispersed into the intergalactic medium, and much more.

To achieve these goals, ATHENA requires a collecting area of 3 square metres with 5 arcsec angular resolution and 12 metre focal length, for unmatched sensitivities. Relative to previous X-ray missions, it offers a 100-fold increase in the area for high resolution spectroscopy, deep spectral and microsecond spectroscopic timing with high count rate capability. It also features a large shield that blocks light from the Sun, Earth and Moon, which otherwise would heat up the telescope and interfere with observations. The telescope remains operational until the late 2030s.


2028 athena x ray telescope



China builds the world's largest particle accelerator

Following the success of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) in Europe,* the Chinese decided to build their own larger particle accelerator. Researchers at the Institute of High Energy Physics in Beijing announced plans for a machine 52 km (32.5 mi) in length – twice the circumference of the LHC. This would allow the Higgs boson to be studied in greater detail, revealing new insights into the fundamental structure of matter and confirming whether multiple types of Higgs boson existed. Construction began in 2019, with completion in 2028.* It paves the way for an even larger project in 2035.**


future particle accelerators timeline china



The International Space Station is decommissioned

The International Space Station was constructed from 1998 to 2014. Its operational lifetime was originally planned to be until 2020, but with extra funding was extended to 2028. This date was chosen to mark the 30th anniversary of the first Russian component to be launched. Like its predecessor – Space Station Mir – it is ditched in the Pacific Ocean. Some modules of the Russian Orbital Segment are salvaged before the de-orbiting takes place. These are used as the basis for a new station, known as the Orbital Piloted Assembly and Experiment Complex.*


2028 technology



Printed electronics are ubiquitous

The printed electronics market has seen exponential growth. By now, it has ballooned to over $300 bn globally.* This technology began with a small number of niche, high-end products. It expanded rapidly in the 2010s, thanks to plummeting costs and improved production methods. By the 2020s it had exploded into the mainstream – creating a new generation of ultra-thin electronics.

Today, these have such low fabrication costs that they are ubiquitous in countless everyday business and consumer applications.* Many previously bulky or heavy devices can now be folded, stored or carried as easily as sheets of paper. This includes flexible TV displays that can be rolled or hung like posters. Also widespread are electronic newspapers with moving pictures, "smart" packaging and labels with animated text, along with signage in retail outlets that can be updated shop-wide at the touch of a button.*

Multimedia players with expandable, fold-out touchscreens are especially popular. Even low-end models are now the size and weight of credit cards and can easily fit inside a wallet. With petabytes of storage, gigapixels of screen resolution and superfast transfer speeds, they are orders of magnitude more powerful than iPods of the previous decade. They are also completely wireless – no cables or physical connections of any kind are required, with music being enjoyed using wireless earphones.


2028 technology printed electronics 2020 2020s 2025 2030 future
Credit: University of Cincinnati



The UK population reaches 70 million

Britain will soon become the most populous country in Europe, overtaking both Germany and France. This is mainly due to large numbers of immigrants. Combined with a shrinking labour force, this is putting a huge strain on public services – especially in London, which has born the brunt of the increase.

future global population 2000 2050
Source: Office for National Statistics



British newspapers are going out of circulation

By the late 2020s, the last of Britain's national newspapers are being taken out of circulation.* Even once formerly major titles like the Sun, the Daily Mail and the Daily Mirror have ceased production. The surviving newspapers have now all transitioned to entirely digital formats.


british newspapers circulation future timeline


The printing industry had a long history in Britain. The first printing press was invented by William Caxton in 1476. This led to further developments in mechanical movable type and a huge increase of printing activities over subsequent centuries. During the 1600s, various publications would spread both news and rumours – such as pamphlets, posters and ballads. The English Civil War (1642–1651) greatly increased the demand for news.

Among the first real "newspapers" were the Oxford Gazette (1665), Berrow's Worcester Journal (1690) and Daily Courant (1702). By the 1720s, there were 12 London newspapers and 24 provincial papers. The first English journalist to achieve national importance was Daniel Defoe (1660–1731). During the 18th and 19th centuries, the Industrial Revolution allowed production methods to be improved, print runs to be greatly increased and newspapers to be sold at lower cost. Circulation of The Times rose from 5,000 copies in 1815 to 10,000 in 1834 and 40,000 by 1851; about 80% of the entire market.

The period from 1860 to 1910 was considered a "golden age" of newspaper publication, with further technical advances in printing and communication – combined with a more professional style of journalism and the prominence of new owners. Socialist, labour and trade union papers began to proliferate. In 1896, The Daily Mail was first published and became the first daily newspaper aimed at the newly literate "lower-middle class market resulting from mass education, combining a low retail price with plenty of competitions, prizes and promotional gimmicks." It was the first British paper to sell a million copies a day. Two other "halfpenny" papers to emerge included the Daily Express and the Daily Mirror. By the 1930s, over two-thirds of the population was estimated to read a newspaper every day, with almost everyone taking one on Sundays.

Circulations continued to increase, reaching a peak in the mid-20th century. From the 1960s onwards, however, sales began to decline. In an effort to attract more readers, some tabloids – including The Sun, the Daily Mirror and Daily Star – began publishing images of topless women. The 1980s saw the introduction of computer-based typesetting and full-colour offset printing. The reporting of stories became ever more sensationalised and controversial as the fall in sales continued through the 1990s and into the 21st century.

The rapid rise of the Internet – providing instant and free access to information – accelerated the decline of the newspaper industry. A major factor was the emergence of smartphones, tablets and other handheld, web-enabled devices, becoming cheap and widely available. By 2015, none of the remaining UK papers had a daily circulation above two million. The overall circulation of newspapers declined by 6.6% in 2014–15, with further declines in the following decade, resulting in the end of printed national newspapers in Britain.


british newspapers future circulation trend graph 2025 2030



Los Angeles hosts the Summer Olympic Games

From 21st July to 6th August 2028, the 34th Summer Olympics are held in Los Angeles, California.* This event is the fifth Summer Games to be hosted in the United States, and the third in Los Angeles – following St. Louis 1904, Los Angeles 1932, Los Angeles 1984 and Atlanta 1996. Los Angeles also becomes the third city after London (1908, 1948 and 2012) and Paris (1900, 1924 and 2024) to have hosted the Olympic Games on three occasions.

The 2028 Games are spread across four areas, each highlighting the different geographical features of the city: Long Beach, South Bay, Downtown and Valley Sports Park.* Travel between venues is made easy thanks to L.A.'s extensive system of highways and public transport, with many improvements and upgrades having been made since the 1984 Games. By 2028, $88bn worth of expanded subway, light rail, rapid bus transit, and express lane projects are operational, connecting all sports parks, the airport, the Games Centre, and every corner of L.A.

The Olympic and Paralympic Village is based at the centrally-located UCLA campus, close to the city's cultural and entertainment attractions. All Olympic and Paralympic sports parks are within 40 minutes of the Village.

The opening and closing ceremonies are each, for the first time, staged across two different stadiums. The opening ceremony starts at the Los Angeles Memorial Coliseum and finishes at the Los Angeles Stadium at Hollywood Park (the latter forming part of a major new sports, entertainment, hotel and business district). The order is reversed for the closing ceremony.

While most Olympic host cities have seven years to prepare, Los Angeles was given an additional four, for a total of 11 years. This was due to the unusual bidding process in 2017, which saw Paris and Los Angeles elected simultaneously for 2024 and 2028, respectively.*




Total solar eclipse in Australia and New Zealand

A total solar eclipse occurs on 22nd July 2028.** Totality occurs in a narrow path across the Earth's surface, with a partial solar eclipse visible over a surrounding region thousands of kilometres wide. The central line of the path crosses the Australian continent from the Kimberley region in the northwest and continues in a southeasterly direction through Western Australia, the Northern Territory, southwest Queensland and New South Wales, close to the towns of Wyndham, Kununurra, Tennant Creek, Birdsville, Bourke and Dubbo. It continues on through the centre of Sydney, where the eclipse has a duration of over three minutes. It also crosses Dunedin, New Zealand.


2028 total solar eclipse



Resurrection of several extinct species has been achieved

In 2009, the Pyrenean Ibex became the first animal to ever be made "un-extinct", for seven minutes, when a cloned female was born alive before dying from lung defects.* This was eventually followed by a woolly mammoth, using tissue samples from ancient permafrost.* By the late 2020s,* a number of other species have been resurrected (with varying degrees of success) including the famous dodo – last observed in 1662 – and the wild pigeon, Ectopistes migratorius, which went from being one of the world's most common birds during the 19th century, to extinction in the early 20th.

Three different approaches have been taken to restore lost animals and plants:

  • Cloning, in which genetic material is extracted from preserved tissue to create an exact modern copy.

  • Selective breeding, where a closely-related modern species is given characteristics of the extinct relative.

  • Genetic engineering, where DNA of a modern species is edited until it closely matches the extinct species.

Ethical and legal issues are now emerging, however, such as the effect of these "alien" species on modern ecosystems and the possibility of diseases. With genetics advancing at such a rapid rate, even hominids like neanderthals could potentially be brought back. Further into the future, de-extinction of lost species will become a vital part of restoring the Earth's biosphere, as a global rewilding effort takes shape.


dodo resurrection future



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1 ESA's new vision to study the invisible universe, ESA:
Accessed 28th November 2013.

2 European Space Agency sets a path for big space science, BBC:
Accessed 28th November 2013.

3 See 2015.

4 China is set to build a particle collider twice the circumference of the LHC, Geek:
Accessed 27th July 2014.

5 At this stage, the 2035 plans are unclear, so both are included in the image (China's version and the VLHC). See Nature link below for more details.

6 China plans super collider, Nature:
Accessed 27th July 2014.

7 International Space Station, Wikipedia:
Accessed 20th May 2011.

8 Can the 'silver bullet' of printing revolutionize electronics?, CNN:
Accessed 16th December 2009.

9 "Expect that the first-generation foldable e-devices will be monochrome. Color will come later. Eventually, within 10 to 20 years, e-Devices with magazine-quality color, viewable in bright sunlight but requiring low power will come to market."
See UC Research Brings Us Step Closer to Rollable, Foldable e-Devices, University of Cincinnati:
Accessed 10th August 2013.

10 Microsoft Retail Future Vision, Intentional Futures:
Accessed 10th August 2013.

11 Trends and data available from the Audit Bureau of Circulations (ABC):
Accessed 23rd August 2016.

12 LA 2028, Official website:
Accessed 18th September 2017.

13 Video made before it was known that LA would be hosting in 2028, not 2024.
LA 2024 Venue Plan,
Accessed 18th September 2017.

14 Olympic Games: Paris & LA to host 2024 & 2028 respectively, BBC News:
Accessed 18th September 2017.

15 Total Solar Eclipse of 2028 Jul 22, NASA:
Accessed 3rd August 2016.

16 22 July 2028 — Total Solar Eclipse, Time and Date:
Accessed 3rd August 2016.

17 Extinct ibex is resurrected by cloning, The Telegraph:
Accessed 9th April 2013.

18 Extinct animals we could - and should - clone tomorrow, io9:
Accessed 25th October 2014.

19 "...within 15 years they will be able to revive some more recently extinct species, such as the dodo or the passenger pigeon."
See Stanford's Hank Greely presents the ethics of resurrecting extinct species, Stanford University:
Accessed 9th April 2013.




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