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Islam is the world's dominant religion

By 2070, Islam has overtaken Christianity to become the dominant religion.* More than a quarter of the world's population was Muslim by the 2020s* and this growth continued in subsequent decades. Most of the increase has occurred in sub-Saharan Africa with its high fertility rates, although these are beginning to stabilise now.* While the numbers of non-religious have continued to increase, when measured as a percentage of the global population their share has declined from 16.4% in 2010, to 13.2% in 2050 and less than 12% in 2070. Christians and Muslims each comprise about 32.3% by 2070, with Christians set to reach 33.8% and Muslims 34.9% by 2100.* India has overtaken Indonesia as the country with the largest number of Muslims – though India's even larger population of Hindus continue to outnumber Muslims in the region.*


Islam 2070 future religion
© Aiconimage | Dreamstime.com



Global average temperatures have risen by 4°C*

Vast stores of methane, released from melting permafrost, have triggered an abrupt change in the Earth's climate.* The atmosphere has now shifted to pre-glacial/interglacial conditions which last prevailed over 34 million years ago.* CO2 levels have reached almost 700 parts per million – two and a half times pre-industrial levels.** This has resulted in a global average temperature increase of 4°C, with the Arctic region seeing rises as high as 15°C.*

In many parts of the world, the limits for human adaptation are being exceeded.* Despite attempts to share food and resources between nations – and to accommodate the surge in refugee numbers – the sheer scale of this disaster is presenting enormous challenges, even with the technological base of the 2070s.

The use of heavily modified GM crops, hydroponics, desalination and other techniques have allowed some regions to maintain a degree of stability. Nanofabricators are also being utilised in the more advanced societies.

For many others, however, it's becoming impossible to sustain any kind of agriculture at all, due to the water loss,* soil depletion and other environmental impacts now being experienced.** The intensity of freak weather events has increased dramatically, with hurricanes and severe storms, extreme flooding and droughts becoming widespread. A number of countries near the equator have been abandoned, their people scattered. City-scale flooding disasters are now commonplace* as sea levels have risen a full metre,* sweeping away trillions of dollars' worth of real estate.

The number of displaced persons is overwhelming the ability of international organisations and governments to cope. Although many refugees are surviving and resettling in higher or lower latitudes, even greater numbers are unable to complete the journey, or are denied border entry, resulting in alarming numbers of deaths from hunger, conflict and adverse environmental conditions. Traditional free market capitalism is facing enormous pressures and upheaval, as civilisation struggles to adapt to this new and rapidly changing world. Resource-based economies are evolving to take its place.**

For too long, humans exploited their environment with little appreciation of long-term consequences. Nature is finally beginning to redress the balance.


global warming timeline 2050 2070 2075 2100 future temperature scenario trend graph



Fusion power is widespread

Most leading countries now have at least one fusion plant either operational, or in the process of construction.* These reactors offer a clean, safe and abundant supply of energy.


fusion power 2070



Fully automated homes

Buildings in developed nations have become highly automated and self-sufficient. In addition to robots, a typical new home now includes the following:

A localised power supply. Energy can be generated by the building itself, via a combination of photovoltaics and piezoelectric materials. Walls, roofs and windows can absorb almost all wavelengths of light from the Sun with organic solar technology, turning it into heat and electricity. Friction generated by the occupant's footsteps – and various other kinetic processes – can also produce energy. This is converted and stored in any number of ways, from hydrogen to batteries. In countries where sunlight is less frequent, microturbines may be used in place of solar.

On-site water production and waste management. Rain is captured by external guttering, then stored and converted into drinking water using nanofiltration systems. This is especially useful in regions prone to drought (which includes a substantial portion of the world by this time). If local water is in short supply, houses can serve as miniature reservoirs and filtration systems. Meanwhile, plastics and other kitchen waste can be placed in recycling machines, ground into extremely fine powder, then later re-used in nanofabricators.

A multi-layered building envelope which provides a variety of dynamic effects. Windows can self-adjust their size and position – as well as their opacity – to optimise the level of natural light. In some of the more upmarket properties, the entire façade can morph its texture and appearance through the use of claytronics. Depending on the tastes of the occupant, this could transform into an art deco style, a classic Victorian building, or something entirely different. This form of "programmable matter" can even be designed by the occupant themselves and changed on demand.

Air purification systems. Air within the home is kept fresh, purified and completely free of dust and microbes.

Interactive surfaces. Holographic generators cover the whole interior of the property – including walls, doors, worktop surfaces, mirrors and shower cubicles. These intelligent surfaces can track the position of the occupant and display information whenever and wherever necessary. A person can read emails, see news reports and access the online world using virtually any surface in the house as a touch screen or mind control interface.* Detailed, real-time information on their health, personal lifestyle and daily schedules can also be displayed. This system has a variety of other functions, e.g. it can be used to locate personal items which may have been misplaced.

Intelligent/self-maintaining appliances. Appliances that don't repair or maintain themselves in some way have become largely obsolete by now. It is very rare for a human engineer to be called to the house.

A modest size. The world is becoming an ever more crowded place, with available land continuing to shrink due to overpopulation and environmental decline. In city centres, apartments tend to be highly minimalist and compact, with small footprints utilising every inch of space. Full immersion virtual reality is one method of adapting to this. Another is flexible room layouts that reconfigure themselves on demand. In earlier decades, this was achieved in some homes by using a sliding wall system.* Today, it can be done with morphable claytronics.


future home 2020 2050 2100 house building technology automated
© Sellingpix | Dreamstime.com



Five-year survival rates for liver cancer are approaching 100%

In the early 21st century, liver cancer was the third most common cancer death in the world. Nearly 700,000 people died from the disease in 2008, accounting for 9% of all cancer deaths. Major risk factors included chronic infection with hepatitis B and C (accounting for 54% and 31% of cases, respectively), consumption of foods contaminated with aflatoxin, and heavy alcohol consumption. It was nearly three times more common in men than in women.

In 2009, Japanese researchers began efforts to map the complete genome of liver cancer.* This paved the way for blood tests to spot tumours earlier, whilst also yielding new drug targets. The increasing use of nanoparticle carriers – and eventually nanobots giving precise control and delivery of drugs – also greatly improved survival rates.

Despite the global chaos unfolding at this point in history, scientific knowledge continues to advance incrementally. By 2070, five-year survival rates for liver cancer are reaching 100% in many countries.**


future treatments liver cancer five year survival rate




Advanced nanotech clothing

Fifty years have passed since the mainstream appearance of nanotech clothing. During that time it has made extraordinary improvements in utility, power and sophistication. Modern fabrics have built upon the abilities of previous generations, perfecting many of the technologies involved. Today, a complex blend of nanotechnology, biotechnology, claytronics, metamaterials and other components has yielded a type of clothing previously confined to the realm of science fiction. Though mostly restricted to specialised personnel, government forces and the elite, a number of these suits are finding their way into the mainstream.

Construction via self-assembling nanotechnology has been around for a number of decades. Until now, the process was only practical using bulky and/or conspicuous machinery, nanofabricators, or objects suspended in tanks of catalytic fluids.* However, recent advances in nanorobotics have allowed for more subtle and rapid construction of macro-scale objects in a more compact form-factor and with less impact on Earth's natural resources. As happened with early nanotech adoption in the 2020s, one of the easiest and most common applications has been in fabrics. Today, a high-end home "closet" may consist of simply a thin surface or pad built into the wall or floor, concealing a mass of nanobots and molecular building materials. A user can stand on or touch this surface and issue instructions to the machine (through voice command or virtual telepathy) for what to create. Each nanobot is then programmed with the final clothing design and set into motion.

The process begins with each nanobot organising and categorising each building molecule, based on the aggregate material needed and where each piece will be located in the finished product. The nanobots – also called "foglets" – then begin interlocking with themselves, forming a basic "skeleton" on which building molecules can be attached.*

As more and more nanobots and molecules are added on, thousands of individual fibres begin to form out of the machine's surface. These grow up and around the person's body, crossing each other to create a weave pattern, before finally taking the shape of traditional clothing. The result is a basic structure around which nanobots then construct the more advanced and customised features. Depending on the outfit's function, the original fibres can be interlaced with photovoltaics, piezoelectric nanowire, carbon nanotubes, metamaterials, claytronics or any number of other useful materials. Tiny electronic devices can be added for communication or medical purposes. This whole process is completed in a matter of seconds.

With such detail and control, fabric of this nature confers the wearer an array of conveniences. In earlier decades, this technology was limited to relatively simple functions, like colour and texture modifications.* Today, it is almost indistinguishable from magic. Complete wardrobes are no longer necessary, since one garment performs the function of many, transforming into an endless variety of styles and shapes. Most outfits are self-cleaning, self-fragrancing and rarely if ever need to be washed.** They can instantly adjust themselves in emergencies – becoming harder than steel to stop a knife or bullet; cushion-like in the event of accidents or falls. If a person is injured, the fabric can administer life-saving drugs and medical nanobots, or contract to seal a wound.* A drowning person can be made safe. Fire-fighters and other rescue workers are completely protected from hazards such as fire or radiation. This is also useful in space, protecting people from sudden changes in air pressure, micrometeorites, cosmic rays and other hazards. Medical devices included in these outfits monitor for disease at all times, catching the earliest signs of cancer or infection and alerting the wearer before any damage is done.* Whatever power is needed for the various functions is supplied by a combination of piezoelectric and photovoltaic components embedded throughout the clothing material.

Some of these aforementioned comforts had already been available in earlier decades, but were simpler and fewer – usually limited to just one, or a small number within each item of clothing. Today, however, all of them can be fully integrated and combined together into a single suit, created and maintained via swarms of intelligent foglets. As this technology evolves further, it becomes a permanent part of some peoples' physiology, almost like a second skin.*


Click to view animation

future clothing 2050 2070 technology



Picotechnology is becoming practical

Technology on the scale of trillionths of a metre (10-12) is becoming practical now.* Known as "picotechnology", this is orders of magnitude smaller than nanotechnology of earlier decades.* Among other applications, it allows the structure and properties of individual atoms to be altered via manipulation of energy states within electrons. This can produce metastable states with highly unusual properties, creating new and exotic forms of matter.


picotechnology 2072



The number of trillionaires in the world exceeds 10

The world's first trillionaire had emerged in the 2030s. The entire top 10 of the Forbes rich list is now composed of such individuals.* Due in part to inflation, 20% of the global adult population now possesses a net worth of US$1 million or more. The rich have also become younger, more female and less Western.


first trillionaires 2050 2070 future



The Green Wall of China is completed

A 73-year environmental project to halt the advancing sands of the Gobi Desert is finally completed this year.* Beijing and other cities along China's northeastern border are now protected from desertification by a 4,500 km (2,800 mi) barrier of newly planted trees.*

To build it, the government established a plan involving three approaches. Firstly, aerial seeding over vast swathes of land where the soil was less arid. Secondly, the paying of farmers to plant trees and shrubs in areas requiring greater attention. Thirdly, the construction of a huge fence along the perimeter.

Inside this gigantic new forest, sand-tolerant vegetation was arranged in optimised checkerboard patterns to create an artificial ecosystem that stabilised the dunes. A gravel platform held sand down and encouraged the formation of a soil crust. The government also funded research into genetically engineered plants, chemical dune stabilisation, grass strains bred in space, and even farming techniques that allowed rice to grow in sandy soil. Prior to the erection of this barrier, the Gobi had been advancing south at 3 km (1.9 mi) per year.


green wall of china 2050 2074



The first space elevator is becoming operational

The idea of a space elevator had been around as early as 1895, when Russian scientist Konstantin Tsiolkovsky first explored the concept. Inspired by the newly-built Eiffel Tower, he described a free-standing structure reaching from ground level into geostationary orbit. Rising some 36,000 km (22,000 mi) above the equator and following the direction of Earth's rotation, it would have an orbital period of exactly one day and thus be maintained in a fixed position.

A number of more detailed proposals emerged in the mid-late 20th century, as the Space Race got underway and manned trips to Earth orbit became increasingly routine. It was hoped that a space elevator could drastically reduce the cost of getting into orbit – revolutionising access to near-Earth space, the Moon, Mars and beyond. However, the upfront investment and level of technology required meant that such a project was rendered impractical for now, confining it to the realm of science fiction.

By the early decades of the 21st century, the concept was being taken more seriously, due to progress being made with carbon nanotubes. These cylindrical molecules offered ways of synthesising an ultra-strong material with sufficiently high tensile strength and sufficiently low density for the elevator cable. However, they could only be produced at extremely small scales. In 2004, the record length for a single-wall nanotube was just 4 cm. Although highly promising, further research would be needed to refine the manufacturing process.

It was not until the 2040s* that material for a practical, full-length cable became technically feasible, with the required tensile strength of 130 gigapascals (GPa). Even then, design challenges persisted – such as how to nullify dangerous vibrations in the cable, triggered by gravitational tugs from the Moon and Sun, along with pressure from gusts of solar wind.**

Major legal and financial hurdles also needed to be overcome – requiring international agreements on safety, security and compensation in the event of an accident or terrorist incident. The insurance arrangements were of particular concern, given the potential for large-scale catastrophe if something went wrong. In the interim, smaller experimental structures were built, demonstrating the basic concept at lower altitudes. These would eventually pave the way to a larger and more advanced design.


Click to enlarge

space elevator schematics


By the late 2070s,*** following 15 years of construction,* a space elevator reaching from the Earth's surface into geostationary orbit has become fully operational. The construction process involves placing a spacecraft at a fixed position – 35,786 km (22,236 mi) above the equator – then gradually extending a tether down to "grow" the cable towards Earth. It also extends upwards from this point – to over 47,000 km (29,204 mi) – a height at which objects can escape the pull of gravity altogether. A large counterweight is placed at this outer end to keep it taut. Locations that are most suitable as ground stations include French Guiana, Central Africa, Sri Lanka and Indonesia.

As with most forms of transport and infrastructure in the late 21st century, the space elevator is controlled by artificial intelligence, which constantly monitors and maintains the structure throughout. If necessary, robots can be dispatched to fix problems in the cable or other components, from ground level to the cold vacuum of space. This is rarely required, however, due to the efficiency and safety mechanisms in the design.

A major space boom is now underway, as people and cargo can be delivered to orbit at vastly reduced costs, compared with traditional launches. Over 1,000 tons of material can be lifted in a single day, greater than the weight of the International Space Station, which took over a decade to build at the start of the century.*

Although relatively slow – taking many hours to ascend* – the ride is much smoother than conventional rockets, with no high-G forces or explosives. Upon leaving the atmosphere and reaching Low Earth Orbit, between 160 km (99 mi) and 2,000 km (1,200 mi), cargo or passengers can be transferred to enter their own orbit around Earth. Alternatively, they can be jettisoned beyond geosynchronous orbit, in craft moving at sufficient speed to escape the planet's gravity, travelling onward to more remote destinations such as the Moon or Mars.

In the decades ahead, additional space elevators become operational above Earth, the Moon, Mars and elsewhere in the Solar System,* with a considerable reduction in costs and technical risks. Construction is also made easier by lower gravity: 0.16 g for the Moon and 0.38 g on Mars. Further into the future, space elevators are rendered obsolete by teleportation and similar technologies.


space elevator 2050 2075 2080 the late 21st century technology




The ozone layer has fully recovered

Chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) were invented in the 1920s. They were used in air conditioning/cooling units, as aerosol spray propellants prior to the 1980s, and in the cleaning processes of electronic equipment. They also occured as by-products of some chemical processes.

No significant natural sources were ever identified for these compounds – their presence in the atmosphere was found to be almost entirely due to human activity. When such ozone-depleting chemicals reached the stratosphere, they dissociated by ultraviolet light to release chlorine atoms. The chlorine atoms acted as a catalyst, each one breaking down tens of thousands of ozone molecules before being removed from the stratosphere.

The ozone layer prevents most UV wavelengths of sunlight from passing through the Earth's atmosphere. In the late 20th century, huge decreases in ozone generated worldwide concern. It was suspected that a variety of biological consequences – such as increases in skin cancer, cataracts, damage to plants, and reduced plankton populations – resulted from the higher levels of UV exposure due to ozone depletion.

This led to the adoption of the Montreal Protocol – one of the single most successful international agreements of all time, which banned the production of CFCs, halons and related ozone-depleting chemicals. Although this ban came into force in 1989, the molecules had a longevity of several decades. In 2006, the ozone hole was the largest ever recorded, at 10.6 million square miles (pictured below). It was not until 2075 that it fully recovered.*


ozone layer recovery 2075



The distribution of birds in the United States has been altered substantially

By 2075, a combination of global warming, land use and land cover changes has led to substantial environmental impacts in the United States. This has caused disruption to many animal species in terms of how they live, feed and breed. The habitat ranges of birds have been particularly affected. Not all of these changes have been negative, as some species have actually benefited and seen major increases in their traditional ranges. However, despite the extra room for expansion, these winners now face renewed competition and territorial contests from other species, as well as new predators.

Generally speaking, higher temperatures have pushed the overall range of species further north. Desert-dwelling birds now have increased habitat, while those preferring cold weather conditions have seen a decrease. In contrast to the broad, sweeping influence of climate change, the effects of landscape changes resulting largely from human activity have been more scattered and focussed, with a very high loss of habitat at certain local and regional scales. Urban growth, deforestation, mining and other resource use has been at least as impactful on ranges as climate change.

Many familiar sounds and spectacles of birds that were previously common in backyards and countryside walks have disappeared, while new and strangely unfamiliar ones have appeared to replace them. Among the bird ranges seeing the greatest expansions are those of Gambel's quail (+62%), the cactus wren (+54%), scissor-tailed flycatcher (+46%), gray vireo (+45%) and painted bunting (+39%).** Conversely, many state birds and mascots are vanishing now including the Baltimore oriole, brown pelican of Louisiana, common loon of Minnesota and others. The iconic bald eagle has lost nearly 75% of its range.*


climate change birds future 2075 habitat range



The Thames Barrier is upgraded

London is the latest of many cities to upgrade its flood defences in the wake of devastating storm surges and sea level rises.* The original barrier was raised a total of 62 times between 1983 and 2001. It was raised with increasing frequency as the decades went by. Towards the end of this century its successor will need to be raised over 200 times each and every year.*


future thames flood barrier




Accurate simulations of viruses

Thanks to advances in lattice quantum chromodynamics, the vast majority of viruses have now been accurately modelled and simulated down to the quantum level.* This provides what is essentially a complete picture of these tiny organisms, which average 20-300 nanometres in size, with millions of different types. As this area of science continues to advance, ever larger and more detailed simulations become possible,* providing new insights into the nature of matter.


lattice qcd virus simulation



Unmanned probes to Sedna

Sedna is a trans-Neptunian "dwarf planet", similar in size and composition to Pluto.* Discovered in 2003, it became the most distant object yet observed in the Solar System, and the largest solar body to be found in over 70 years. Its orbit is highly elliptical, going from 76 AU to about 975 AU over the course of 12,000 years. In 2076, it reaches perihelion (its closest point to the Sun) and a number of unmanned probes are sent to explore it.


sedna perihelion orbit 2076 solar system future aphelion



Total solar eclipse in New York

A rare total eclipse is witnessed in New York City, as well as Nova Scotia in Canada, and Greenland, on 1st May 2079.*


2079 eclipse new york



SQL Server databases are hit by a major glitch

On 6th June 2079, the "smalldatetime" fields in SQL Server databases wrap around to January 1, 1900. Similar to the Year 2038 problem, this is caused by a limited number of possible element ranges.* There are major errors for any vintage/antique computers still using these systems, though most of the surviving examples are in museums by now. Structured Query Language is exactly a century old, having been commercially introduced in 1979.


sql 2079




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1 Islam projected to be world's largest religion by 2070, USA Today:
Accessed 7th April 2015.

2 See 2030.

3 See 2095.

4 The Future of World Religions: Population Growth Projections, 2010-2050, Pew Research Centre:
Accessed 7th April 2015.

5 Data Explorer - Pew-Templeton Global Religious Futures Project, Pew Research Centre:
Accessed 7th April 2015.

6 See Global temperature.

7 Science stunner: Vast East Siberian Arctic Shelf methane stores destabilizing and venting, Climate Progress:
Accessed 20th March 2011.

8 U.S. media largely ignores latest warning from climate scientists: “Recent observations confirm … the worst-case IPCC scenario trajectories (or even worse) are being realised” — 1000 ppm, Climate Progress:
Accessed 20th March 2011.

9 Past and future CO2 concentrations, United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP):
Accessed 20th March 2011.

10 M.I.T. doubles its 2095 warming projection to 10°F — with 866 ppm and Arctic warming of 20°F, Climate Progress:
Accessed 20th March 2011.

11 No rainforest, no monsoon: get ready for a warmer world, New Scientist:
Accessed 20th March 2011.

12 Four degrees and beyond: the potential for a global temperature increase of four degrees and its implications, The Royal Society:
Accessed 20th March 2011.

13 Mapping Future Water Stress, BBC:
Accessed 20th March 2011.

14 Half of world’s population could face climate-driven food crisis in second half of the century, Climate Progress:
Accessed 20th March 2011.

15 The Meaning of the 21st Century, James Martin:
Accessed 20th March 2011.

16 City-scale flooding disasters predicted by 2070, The Telegraph:
Accessed 20th March 2011.

17 Predicting future sea level rise, Skeptical Science:
Accessed 20th March 2011.

18 Zeitgeist: Moving Forward:
Accessed 20th March 2011.

19 The Meaning of the 21st Century, James Martin:
Accessed 20th March 2011.

20 U. S. FUSION ENERGY FUTURE, Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory:
Accessed 9th October 2012.

21 Inside the house of the future, BBC:
Accessed 20th May 2010.

22 24 Room Apartment Crammed Into A 344 Sq. Foot Space (video), Gadget Review:
Accessed 20th May 2010.

23 Scientists crack 'entire genetic code' of cancer, BBC:
Accessed 9th October 2012.

24 Browse the SEER Cancer Statistics Review 1975-2009 (Vintage 2009 Populations), National Cancer Institute:
Accessed 9th October 2012.

25 Liver cancer survival statistics, Cancer Research UK [archived on Wayback Machine]:
Accessed 9th October 2012.

26 Engines of Creation: The Coming Era of Nanotechnology, by Eric Drexler:
Accessed 1st December 2012.

27 Manufacturing Complex 3-D Metallic Structures at Nanoscale Made Possible, Science Daily:
Accessed 1st December 2012.

28 See 2040.

29 Self-cleaning clothes, Future Timeline Blog:
Accessed 1st December 2012.

30 Light-triggered fragrance, Henkel:
Accessed 1st December 2012.

31 Military Uses of Nanotechnology: Perspectives and Concerns, Jürgen Altmann:
Accessed 1st December 2012.

32 Wearable Breast Cancer Test Detects Tumors Before Doctors, Singularity Hub:
Accessed 1st December 2012.

33 See 2080.

34 The Age of Spiritual Machines, by Ray Kurzweil (1999)
Accessed 20th June 2009.

35 To get an idea of the scale we are talking about here, see: http://htwins.net/scale2/
Picotechnology would involve the use of components smaller than a carbon atom (drag the slider from left to right to zoom in).

36 Global Wealth Report 2013, Credit Suisse:
Accessed 29th January 2014.

37 China's Great Green Wall, BBC:
Accessed 6th January 2010.

38 Green Wall of China, Wikipedia:
Accessed 6th January 2010.

39 See 2040.

40 Space Elevator: Stability, Science Direct:
Accessed 5th July 2013.

41 Space elevator vibration, New Scientist:
Accessed 5th July 2013.

42 When do you predict Earth will get its first space elevator, Future Timeline Poll:
Accessed 5th July 2013.

43 Size of products with molecular-level detail, Future Timeline:
Accessed 5th July 2013.

44 According to Smitherman, construction is not feasible today but it could be toward the end of the 21st century. "First we'll develop the technology," said Smitherman. "In 50 years or so, we'll be there. Then, if the need is there, we'll be able to do this. That's the gist of the report."
See Audacious & Outrageous: Space Elevators, NASA:
Accessed 3rd January 2018.

45 "... it could take around 15 years to build a space elevator."
See Materials Research Needed to Make Space Elevator a Reality, PC World:
Accessed 5th July 2013.

46 The Space Elevator Fact Sheet, The International Space Elevator Consortium:
Accessed 5th July 2013.

47 See graph at 2090.

48 Space Elevators – An Advanced Earth-Space Infrastructure for the New Millennium, NASA:
Accessed 5th July 2013.

49 Ozone hole smaller in 2009 than 2008, Physorg.com:
Accessed 14th April 2010.

50 Who Will Come to Your Bird Feeder in 2075?, USGS:
Accessed 23rd November 2014.

51 Species Distribution Modeling: The Relative Impacts of Projected Climate and Land-use Change on Conterminous United States Bird Species from 2001 to 2075, USGS:
Accessed 23rd November 2014.

52 North America's key birds facing extinction, study finds, The Guardian:
Accessed 23rd November 2014.

53 Thames Barrier to hold until 2070, BBC:
Accessed 29th November 2009.

54 Six Degrees, by Mark Lynas. Amazon.co.uk:
Accessed 11th Sept 2008.

55 Constraints on the Universe as a Numerical Simulation, Silias R. Beane. et al., University of Washington:
Accessed 15th January 2013.

56 See 2140.

57 90377 Sedna, Wikipedia:
Accessed 24th November 2009.

58 Total Solar Eclipse of 2079 May 01, NASA:
Accessed 28th February 2010.

59 smalldatetime (Transact-SQL), Microsoft:
Accessed 25th November 2014.


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